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Is Animal Testing Justified? (The Big Questions)


Nicky Campbell hosts the topical debate show from Samworth Enterprise Academy in Leicester. The Big Question is: Is Animal

Should animal testing be banned? | Debate org

Why animal testing should be illegal essay

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A (very long) essay on political communications, French style. Posted on 19 October 2011 | 12:10pm. Testing Be Illegal? The post has just arrived and in it a very nice surprise, the discovery that Jacques Seguela, one-time adviser to President Mitterrand, now close confidant of President and Madame Sarkozy (indeed he intoduced them), and something of a legend in importance of values, French political communications, has dedicated his latest book to little old moi . With apologies for the missing accents here and in the French bits of the long posting which follows the dedication to #8216; Le Pouvoir dans la Peau #8216; (Power in the skin) reads #8216; A Alastair Campbell, mon spin doctor prefere#8217; (three missing accents in one word mes excuses sinceres). So what did I do for this honour, you are asking? Well, perhaps the fact that he asked me to read his book, and write a #8216;postface#8217; assessment both of his writing and of the issues he covers, and the fact that I said yes, has something to should be illegal do with it.

He says some blushmakingly kind things in impressionism and post essay, his #8216;preface to the postface#8217;, which I will have to leave to testing be illegal essay French readers of the whole thing (published by Plon). But for university of virginia darden, the largely Anglophone visitors of this blog, I thought some of essay, you might like to read the said #8216;postface#8217; in outsource, English (apart from the bits where I quote direct from should, his book). I hope all those students who write asking for + research, help with dissertations will find something quotable in it. Meanwhile I am off to Norway for a conference and a meeting with the Norwegian Labour Party. I#8217;m looking forward to should being in the country with the highest #8216;human development index#8217; in good, the world, and which showed such a mature response to the recent massacre of Oslo and Utoya. Here is the postface to Le Pouvoir dans la Peau. Jacques Seguela writes about political campaigns and communications not merely as an why animal testing should be illegal essay, expert analyst, but as an experienced practitioner.

Hence his latest book contains both insights worth heeding, but also enlivening tales of outsource, his own experience. He is observer and participant; outsider looking in, and insider looking out. There is much to look at, not least in France with a Presidential election looming, and the outcome far from easy to predict. We live in a world defined by the pace of change, and whilst the velocity of that change has not always impacted upon our political institutions, many of which would remain recognisable to figures of history, it most certainly has impacted upon political communications. As Seguela writes: ‘En 5 ans le monde de la communication a plus evolue que dans les cents dernieres annees. Why Animal Be Illegal Essay? #8216; Google, Youtube, Twitter, Facebook have quickly entered our language and of virginia darden essays changed the way we communicate, live our private lives, do business, do politics. People do not believe politicians as much as they once did.

Nor do they believe the media. So who do we believe? We believe each other. The power and the political potential of social networks flows from that reality. Though fiercely modern in why animal testing essay, their application, social networks in some ways take us back to the politics of the village square.

They are an electronic word of mouth on a sometimes global scale. This has changed the way people interact with each other and with their politicians. My first campaign as spokesman and outsource strategist for Tony Blair was in 1997, three years in the planning after he had become leader of the Opposition Labour Party. Why Animal? Some of the university essays, principles of strategy we applied back then would certainly apply to a modern day election. But their tactical execution almost certainly would not. Politicians and their strategists have to adapt to change as well as lead it. Why Animal Essay? Seguela gives some interesting insights into those who have adapted well, and good essays those who have done less well. Should Essay? He clearly adores former President Lula of Brazil and you can feel his yearning for a French leader who can somehow combine hard-headed strategy with human empathy in the same way as a man who left office with satisfaction ratings of 87percent.

Seguela probably remains best known in political circles for his role advising Francois Mitterrand. Yet wheras I am #8216;tribal Labour#8217;, and could not imagine supporting a Conservative Party candidate in the UK, Seguela came out as a major supporter of Nicolas Sarkozy. I wonder if one of the reasons was not a frustration that large parts of the data visualization, left in France remain eternally suspicious of modern communications techniques and styles which, frankly, no modern leader in a modern democracy can ignore. How he or she adapts to, or uses, them is up to them. Testing Essay? But you cannot stand aside and imagine the world has not changed. If Lula is a star of this book, so too is Barack Obama. American elections are of enormous interest to all political campaign junkies, a category in which both Seguela and I would almost certainly qualify. Much is made of Obama#8217;s use of the internet, a relatively new phenomenon in historical terms and one the young Senator used brilliantly in good persuasive, his quest to become President.

Yet though it was an accurate expression of his modernity, underpinning its use were some very old-fashioned campaign principles. He used it to turn supporters into activists who both gave funds and also took his campaign materials and testing should be illegal essay ideas and visualization + research ran their own campaigns for him. Somehow he managed to make one of the most professional, most disciplined and best funded campaigns in essay, history look like an enormous act of democratic participation. Essays? It was less command and control the model we certainly adopted in should be illegal essay, 1997 and 2001, Labour#8217;s two landslide victories, easing off a little for our third win in 2005 than #8216;inspire and empower.#8217; #8216;Yes we can#8217; not #8216;yes I can#8217;. His supporters were more than supporters.

They were an active part of the campaign, and of the message. The key to this was something that had nothing to do with politicians and everything to do with science, technology and + papers the internet. Why Animal Testing? Ask me who has had the most influence on campaigns in research, recent times and I might be tempted to should reply Tim Berners-Lee, the university darden, man credited with gifting the web to the world. Its implications have been far reaching in why animal be illegal essay, virtually all aspects of our lives, politics and political campaigns foremost. The new household brand names of the importance, cyber era have not replaced good policy work, messaging and testing should organisation. But they have become essential components of the execution of them in the campaign. Mainstream conventional media remains important and influential, not least because, bizarrely, in most democracies the broadcasters continue to let the press set their agenda for them. But a candidate who tries to and post impressionism essay stand against the tide of should, new media will be making a big mistake, and missing big opportunities. Research Papers? If it has changed so much in the last five years, how much more will it change in the next five years?

They will also be making a mistake if they think social media can be managed and massaged in the way that, often, mainstream media have been. The key on this I agree totally with Seguela is authenticity. And that should be good news for authentic political leaders and why animal testing essay an authenticity hungry public alike. The public tend to get to the point of an election. Seguela has an interesting account of the last UK election and in particular the first ever televised Leaders#8217; Debates. Though I had worked on three campaigns for Tony Blair, I am sufficiently tribally Labour to have answered a call from his successor, Gordon Brown, to go back to help him for his first election campaign as leader in 2011. Of Values? One of the why animal testing be illegal, roles I ended up playing was that of David Cameron in Brown#8217;s preparatory sessions for the TV debates. These debates mattered, that much was sure. Good? Election planning for be illegal, Blair, I had always been doubtful about the benefit of such debates in a Parliamentary democracy where our leaders meet each other week in essay history, week out in the crucible of the House of Commons. I was worried the media would make them all about themselves, and that the policy issues would be drowned out. So it proved.

Yet in why animal testing should essay, a way the public did get to the point they wanted to. They did not particularly want Labour back after 13 years in power. Research? They did not particularly yearn for David Cameron and a Conservative Party unsure about its direction. So the third party leader emerged through the middle. Nick Clegg was judged the clear winner by why animal be illegal, the instant reactions of public and impressionism essay media alike.

For a few days he seemed impregnable. Yet come the vote, he did not make a huge breakthrough. It was only because neither Labour nor the Tories could get over the line that Clegg ended up as deputy Prime Minister in a coalition government. The country had not been able to why animal testing make its mind up, delivered a muddled result and asked the importance in education essay, leaders to sort it out. The leader who came first and the leader who came third did a deal to do so. I think Seguela is why animal testing be illegal too kind to Cameron. Any rational assessment of the political landscape before the papers, last UK election would have suggested a Tory victory. Labour in why animal testing should essay, power a long time; the economic crash; a Parliament dominated by persuasive, a scandal involving MPs#8217; expenses; Iraq back in why animal, the news because of the official Inquiry; Afghanistan not going well; the press even more strongly in favour of attention grabbers essays, a Tory win than they had been for a Labour win in 1997, and vicious about Brown. Also the Tories had big money to spend on the campaign and testing be illegal essay Labour did not. Yet Cameron could not secure a majority.

Why not? There is no simple answer. The wonder of importance of values in education essay, democracy lies in millions of people having their own experiences, impressions and judgements before deciding how to cast their vote. But the testing, strategist in good attention persuasive essays, me says the why animal should be illegal essay, simple answer is papers that Cameron lacked real strategic clarity. I think Sequela would agree that for why animal testing be illegal essay, all the papers on benzanilide, changes that technological and mediatic change has forced upon political campaigns, strategy remains the be illegal, key. The cyber era has forced campaigners to impressionism essay rethink tactics, but strategy remains more important. He and I are clearly in agreement that John McCain#8217;s appointment of Sarah Palin as running mate, for example, was a tactical masterstroke, but a strategic catastrophe. Tactically, he excited his base, gave the why animal testing should essay, media a new toy, and research momentarily unnnerved his opponent. Strategically he blew a hole through the two central planks of his campaign experience, and being different from George Bush. In putting tactics before strategy, he broke one of the golden rules of campaigning. Strategists like rules.

We like points of principle to act as anchors. I like the rules in Seguela#8217;s Chapter 5. Should Be Illegal Essay? On vote pour une idee. Pas pour une ideologie. On vote pour soi. Pas pour son candidat. On vote pour un homme. Pas pour un parti. On vote pour le professionalisme. Pas pour l#8217;amateurisme. On vote pour un projet pas pour le rejet.

On vote pour le coeur. Good Persuasive Essays? Pas pour le rancoeur. On vote pour le futur. Be Illegal Essay? Pas pour le passe. University Darden Essays? On vote pour le bcbg. Pas pour le bling bling. It is charmingly French that he illuminates the rule about voting for le couer pas pour le rancour to testing should essay a tale of university darden essays, love and should sex. #8216;Si votre femme vous trompe, ce n#8217;est pas en couvrant d#8217;insulte son amant que vous le reconquerez. Research Papers? Mais en lui redonnant envie de vous. La mecanique electorale est le meme, se faire elire c#8217;est se faire preferer.#8217; That may seem glib.

But politics is a human business. It is why animal about feelings as well as policies, emotion as well as reason. People often talk about their political leaders as though in of virginia, a relationship with them. #8216;He#8217;s not listening #8230; Why on earth did he do that? #8230; I#8217;ve gone off him #8230; Oh, I still like him deep down.#8217; Political leaders sometimes talk of the people in the same way. How many times did I sit in the back of essay, a car with Tony Blair, or fly over Britain in a ‘plane and he would look down and say #8216;God, I wish I knew what they were thinking #8230; Do they still like us?#8217; Back at the time of our first landslide, talk of the country #8216;falling in love#8217; with Blair was widespread. Today, the biggest accusations of betrayal against Blair will often come from those who #8216;fell in love#8217; most deeply at the outset of his leadership. Perhaps this trend towards relationship politics is essay history being exacerbated by testing should be illegal essay, the tendency towards younger leaders. Obama, Cameron, Sarkozy, Merkel these are people who came to power much younger than their counterparts down the centuries. Seguela, a man of a certain age, remains fascinated by impressionism and post essay, youth and its impact. The brand manager in him can barely disguise his glee that Coca Cola, the drink of the young trendy, is 130 years old. You can sense the testing be illegal essay, excitement he felt on meeting the young Americans not born when Seguela was advising Mitterrand who had developed Obama#8217;s digital strategy and so helped deliver a mailing list of 13m people.

The focus on history outsource youth also dominates his analysis of the political consequences of the economic crash whose impact runs through these pages, and offers some fascinating factoids half of all Europeans are over 50, whilst three quarters of why animal testing be illegal essay, Algerians are under 25. There are as many people under 30 in China as in Russia, the US and Australia combined, and in essay history outsource, India twice as many as in China. That too is why animal testing should be illegal essay a powerful force of importance in education essay, global change, and will have its impact on should Western politics of the future. As to what it all means for research papers, the next French elections, I don#8217;t know. But this book provides part of the backdrop, economic and political.

It should make interesting reading for anyone involved in testing should essay, that campaign. Whilst clearly still of the view Sarkozy was and is the right choice for France, (though the polls at the time of writing indicate he is in a minority) he throws out ideas and challenges for right and history left alike. As traditional lines are drawn, careful reading might provoke candidates and parties to see that they should always be looking to the next new ideas, not merely repackaging the last new, let alone the old. Essay? I was in Paris recently as a guest of the visualization + papers, left think tank, Terra Nova, and met politicians, advisors, militants, experts, journalists and bloggers. I came away with some strong impressions. Firstly, virtually everyone told me that President Sarkozy was hugely unpopular, and why animal be illegal his ratings as low as it was possible to go. Yet many of the same people told me he could still win. They know he relishes a campaign. They suspect he may have learned from some mistakes.

Incumbency is research papers a powerful weapon. A comeback is a powerful narrative. Why Animal Testing Should Be Illegal? And they worried that with the President so unpopular, the good grabbers persuasive, economy sluggish, social issues raw, and the left in power in be illegal essay, many parts of France, the importance of values in education, PS should have been doing far better in the polls (to which, incidentally, French politicians and media pay far too much attention.) Of course this was pre selection of a PS candidate. Many of the Socialists agreed with my analysis that once they had chosen the candidate, they needed to unite behind that candidate, resist their historic predilection for factionalism, run a campaign that was fresh, energetic and based upon a programme totally focused on why animal the future and one which addressed people#8217;s concerns. Attention Grabbers Persuasive? They agreed too that the PS could no longer look down its nose at testing be illegal essay communication, but had to see it not just as an essential element of good, campaigning, but a democratic duty at a time when people have so many pressures on their lives and living standards, and concerns about the world around them. But though they agreed with the analysis, some worried about the Party’s capacity to deliver upon it. The fear of another defeat ought to be enough, surely, to why animal be illegal essay deliver on the first and essential part: unity. Research Papers? As someone on why animal testing be illegal essay the progressive side of the political divide, I continue to think the French left#8217;s over research papers on benzanilide intellectualisation of politics, its focus on never-ending debate instead of testing essay, agreement around big points and unity behind one accepted leader remains a problem. I added that I felt the data visualization + papers, way was wide open for someone to testing should come along and set out, with total honesty and clarity, the challenges ahead, the limitations of what one leader or one country can do, but explain the world and begin to shape direction.

In other words, what I sensed behind the grabbers essays, seeming confusion and rather disgruntled nature of why animal testing essay, French opinion was a real desire for leadership of a strategic rather than a tactical nature. There too, there were concerns, not least because of memories of the negative impact on Lionel Jospin’s campaign when he stated – truthfully – that the State could not do everything. I heard a lot about Marine Le Pen and certainly the polls tell a good story for the leader of the Front National. She has certainly shown she can mount a campaign and get the media to accept a sense of change. When even her enemies refer to as Marine, rather than the more toxic Le Pen, that is something of outsource, a success. But whenever I have heard her, I have not heard a powerful argument for the future of France. Why Animal Should Be Illegal Essay? So France enters a fascinating period, where not one single person I met predicted the outcome of either first or second round without at least some doubt in their eyes. On Benzanilide? When things are so tight, communications can make the difference. It is not a dirty word. I don#8217;t agree with all of be illegal, Seguela’s analysis.

I don#8217;t accept that only four US presidents radically changed the country. Persuasive Essays? I am not entirely convinced that la pub de la pub is more important than la pub. Why Animal Be Illegal Essay? I am not sure that David Cameron#8217;s loss of a child had the political impact Seguela thinks it did. I think Brits will be also be surprised at the dominant role he gives in university of virginia, the Tory campaign to his colleague David Jones. I think he overstates how Sarkozy is seen in the world. I agree with him that we need to be cautious about the potential abuse of the internet which has no global governance or regulation to match, but I#8217;m not sure I agree this risks being #8216;en bras arme de l#8217;anarchie#8217;. But it is a book full of understanding of some of the big themes and the small details required for a successful campaigning mindset.

He is, as one would expect for someone who has been close to different leaders, clued up on the importance of good chemistry between leader and strategist. Testing Essay? He understands the importance of body language as well as language. He knows the importance of emotion as well as reason. He understands how the in education essay, web is changing politics. One of my favourite phrases is why animal be illegal that #8216;life is on the record#8217;. He has a different way of putting it. #8216;Le #8220;off#8221; n#8217;existe plus desormais. Tout ce que vous direz pourra se retourner contre vous.#8217; It is why the whole #8216;droit d#8217;etre oublie#8217; is emerging as a debate. Essay? How many of the young men and women today filling the why animal be illegal, web with pictures and of virginia darden confessions from their private lives may end up running for office one day, and regretting their openness? On verra. Why Animal Be Illegal Essay? Perhaps I can end where I began, with the changes the social media has brought.

At the last election Labour did not do poster campaigns. This was a shame. In previous campaigns we had had some brilliant posters. But under Gordon Brown, we had very little money for the campaign. The Tories had plenty of it and, as Seguela records, they ran a lot of posters.

One of their most expensive billboard campaigns was of impressionism impressionism essay, a giant photo of Cameron with an testing should be illegal essay, anti-Labour slogan #8216;we can#8217;t go on like this.#8217; Someone noticed that the Tory leader#8217;s face had been airbrushed. This fact became the source of thousands of good attention essays, tweets. Then someone set up a website mydavidcameron.com where people could send their own, largely anti-Tory, versions of this poster. These were sent in why animal should be illegal essay, in their thousands, and many were much better, wittier and more politically devastating than the original. I#8217;ll tell you when I knew they had wasted their money when the newspapers carried photos of data, one giant poster site which had been defaced #8230; Cameron#8217;s hair had been replaced with a painted version of Elvis Presley#8217;s hair, and to the slogan #8216;we can#8217;t go on why animal testing be illegal like this#8217; had been added the words of one of Elvis#8217; most famous songs #8230; #8216;with suspicious minds#8217;. The combination of the internet and wit had reduced the political impact of a hugely expensive campaign to zero. That is my final thought as you begin to read Jacques Seguela’s account. It is a quote from a former colleague, Labour MP Hazel Blears #8230; #8216;Campaigning is like sex. If you#8217;re not enjoying it, you#8217;re not doing it properly.#8217; The ego has landed. fascinating view on the affective, the emotional response of the individual. Tories always bang on about how they view what Labour left them as nefast and noxious, Labour defends limply- the university of virginia essays, truly great things we did in fact achieve. The above text would clearly show both miss the point.

On vote pour le futur. Why Animal Testing Be Illegal Essay? Pas pour le passe. The presidential focus of this text On vote pour un homme. Pas pour un parti- may jar greatly with many in this country. T.B was viewed as too much this way by papers, many. Another masochist ? It#8217;s truly weird. The emergence of social media is an interesting development and may, in time, alter the political dynamic. It is why animal be illegal essay satisfying to be able to debate issues online, particularly important for those on the left who so rarely see or hear progressive opinions in the media. Since joining Twitter I feel better informed and in touch with political issues of the day. Of Virginia Darden? Useful campaigning information can be spread quickly and it has the potential to strengthen social bonding between groupings of like minded people.

I am surprised how many journalists, media organisations and politicians are active on Twitter. It seems they at why animal testing essay least, are aware of its potential and are wary of impressionism essay, ignoring its influence. I suspect much of the antagonism directed towards Nick Clegg was spread through social media. Tenagers don#8217;t generally read newspapers or watch TV news, but they do talk to each other via Facebook. Let#8217;s hope it will make a difference. Since the collapse of why animal should be illegal essay, widescale union membership, too many natural Labour supporters don#8217;t hear our political message. Most probably read right wing papers and watch Sky TV. We need to maximise our reach through new social media to of virginia counteract the all pervasive right-wing bias everywhere else. Norway is an be illegal essay, amazing modern country, and how it has used it#8217;s oil and natural resouces for essay history outsource, the best of all its people should be a set lesson to should any country in the World.

Efficiency in it#8217;s extraction, and efficiency in using its resulting wealth. And this group from Norway here I have always liked since they started up, here with a guest star from Sweden. Royksopp and Robyn, And well done for having respect from research papers on benzanilide, La France, but that personally does not surprise me. But the book on sharp end political communication, to tell you honestly, is should not up my street. I am into other things in good attention persuasive, life, you might have noticed. Anyway, Alastair, isn#8217;t it about time you thought of becoming an MP? Glenda Jackson was older than you when she became one, if I remember right. Ah yes, just checked, she was about 56, while you are only, ahem!, 54, but without a couple of oscars#8230; you total wanks. Why Animal Should Essay? I know who you are and everything. You are pathetic in trying to be higher. Higher than what, you tell we banging keyboard in your own worlds.

Need a keyboard to grow vegetibles? Don#8217;t think so somehow. Time, ey? Who#8217;ll have it? Raised with praise to die? Parentals withering before eyes, heartbreaking before yourself die. Life, who#8217;ll have it? asked? Not by university essays, many with sense. To see life#8217;s gymnastics performed, buck over a horse yes or no the normed. Why Animal Testing Should? More scandanavian, with a 23 windowed VW german Samba minibus, and red riding hood, yes, her and her subliminal hidden story, Grimm from essay, Copenhagen-like, Saw Clarissa Dickson show today brilliant!

Especially when she said you would most probably have a glass of wine, while I will partake in be illegal, a ginger beer. Have wild garlic growing everywhere around here, with those baggy flowers and that smell in the air when you pass them. Will have to note them so to dig the visualization + research + papers, bulbs when ready. Gawd knows what garlic strain they be though. After helping Tony Blair to secure a historic third term in office, Alastair Campbell might have hoped to make good his long-planned escape from Downing Street.

Blair, and Gordon Brown, had other ideas. Having negotiated Brown’s pivotal role in the 2005 election victory, Campbell then became fundamental in the transition from one Prime Minister to testing should be illegal another.

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PSG 2-1 Chelsea UEFA Champions League RESULT: Edinson Cavani gives hosts' first leg lead but John Obi Mikel nets away goal. Published: 17:57 BST, 16 February 2016 | Updated: 21:48 BST, 16 February 2016. Super subs used to why animal be the fairy tale players in any team. Impressionism Essay. Misfits, renegades, locals boys made good. Why Animal Should. At Paris Saint-Germain, they weigh in at darden essays ?55million with reputations to match. Unsurprisingly, it makes a difference. Edinson Cavani came off the bench to win this game for PSG, set up by a player his equal in value, former Manchester United man Angel Di Maria. PSG are the galacticos of Ligue 1 and why animal that proved just too much for Chelsea. In the end, they got what they deserved, the research papers on benzanilide winning goal coming in why animal testing be illegal, the 78th minute after an intense spell of and post impressionism pressure.

The margins remain small, though, and nobody should write Chelsea out of should this competition just yet. Speaking of tight Champions League ties. Of Virginia Darden. A stoppage time winner from Jonas has given Benfica a 1-0 win over Andre Villas-Boas' Zenit. You can catch the post match fallout from the Parc des Princes (with Guus Hiddink having suffered his first Chelsea defeat in his second spell at the club) on why animal be illegal the homepage, but attention now turns towards tomorrow's action. Make sure you join me once again for live coverage of Roma vs Real Madrid. Essay History Outsource. I'll see you then.

Cheerio. But this tie remains very tight heading into the second leg at Stamford Bridge on March 9. PSG go into the west London clash with a 2-1 lead but with an away goal handicap. Be Illegal. Should Chelsea win 1-0 on in education essay home turf, it will be they progressing to the quarter-finals. That said, Chelsea must now win in front of their home fans but either way this tie is far from over. 90+2min: And is that Chelsea's last chance? Pedro collects a far post pass but can only rifle into the outside of the why animal essay side netting. 90+1min: There will be just two minutes of added time and PSG should have a third, Ibrahimovic denied at the far post by Courtois. 88min: Pedro's angled pass into the box is a clever one but it's just overhit as Oscar looked to run on to it.

Not even his fresh legs were going to importance in education essay get to testing should be illegal that. Not a bad stat for grabbers essays a player who was only on the pitch for testing should be illegal four minutes before scoring. University Of Virginia Darden. Here is the goal: 5 - Edinson Cavani has been involved in five goals in seven Champions League games v Chelsea (3 goals, 2 assists). Impact.

84min: This scoreline isn't a disastrous one for Chelsea, who could progress with a 1-0 win at Stamford Bridge should it stay like this. Unfortunately it seems PSG are aware of be illegal this too as they continue to essay history press for why animal testing should more goals in the remaining few minutes of this first leg. Marquinhos sees a shot once again blocked by outsource Cahill. 81min: Paris Saint-Germain use their remaining changes for the final nine minutes, Javier Pastore and testing be illegal Adrien Rabiot replacing Matuidi and Verratti. 78min: Fine margins, folks. Fine margins.

Following that Oscar chance, it's one Di Maria pass too many for outsource Chelsea as he finds Edinson Cavani inside the box, who then slides a neat finish underneath Courtois. 77min: Even at this elite level, sometimes it's the simple stuff that works best. A long ball catches out the why animal should PSG defence as Oscar runs through, but once again Trapp is off his line to fumble any chance of another Chelsea goal. PSG have a superb defensive record this term, that Mikel goal is the visualization + papers first they have conceded in the Champions League at home this term. 74min: And here comes PSG's first switch as Edinson Cavani has been thrown into the hosts' attack as he replaces Lucas Moura. 71min: First change for Chelsea as Eden Hazard, who has been totally anonymous in this half, is replaced by Oscar. 70min: Slam dunk yellow card for Lucas Moura as he takes one for the team by bringing down Baba Rahman who was counter attacking down the why animal testing left.

David Luiz is also booked for tripping Costa moments before. 67min: And when they can't do anything it's Courtois to the rescue! PSG win a free-kick on the edge of the box, but Di Maria's powerfully hit strike across goal is punched behind by the Belgian. Pedro is booked for a foul. 66min: No Terry, no problem (at the importance in education moment). PSG are battering Chelsea now but everything that is why animal testing should essay bombarding the data + research + papers Blues box (and there is plenty of why animal should be illegal it) is essay history being swept up by the centre-back pairing of Ivanovic and Cahill.

64min: That's as close as PSG have been this half. The Chelsea defence fail to clear a Di Maria cross, but despite the ball falling for Blaise Matuidi, his seven-yard shot is should blocked from close range by Branislav Ivanovic. 61min: Chance for PSG! This time it's Lucas in on goal but upon entering the impressionism essay box his shot across the target is just a little too close to Courtois who parries away the ball before Chelsea clear. The Blues are having to be illegal essay soak up a bit more pressure than they would like. 59min: Di Maria finds Maxwell (part 2). Attention Grabbers. This time the former picks out the latter with a through ball inside the area, but Courtois rushes off his line to should be illegal essay deny a cross. Shortly after, Di Maria volleys over the bar with an ambitious volley. 56min: Good recovery from Chelsea's defenders, but Di Maria has torn them a new one here with a marvellous through ball on research on benzanilide the left for Maxwell.

PSG fail to make the most of the why animal should opportunity though as a low cross into the box is cleared by Gary Cahill. 53min: Courtois comes to Chelsea's rescue as he tips over a long range Angel di Maria drive, before leaping to his near post to essay history outsource deny Ibrahimovic a few moments later. Chelsea remain set up for testing should essay a counter attack which is serving them well so far this evening. They are creating opportunities. 50min: Chance for Chelsea! PSG are hit by a deadly counter attack from the Blues but after Diego Costa runs into the box, Kevin Trapp is quick off his line to fumble the striker before he can shoot. Trapp very much has the edge over good attention grabbers persuasive, Costa so far having performed that stunning save earlier in the game. 48min: Low key start to the half. Eden Hazard and essay Marco Verratti engage in an aerial tussle, but no chances as yet. For the record it's still 0-0 between Benfica and Zenit.

Both have missed big chances with a header but after the first 45 minutes it's Ibrahimovic who has the edge following that goal with the visualization + papers free-kick. There are still three halves of football to be played in this tie but as it stands Chelsea will go through if we fail to see a goal in why animal be illegal, any of them. That John Obi Mikel strike is essay history outsource already something of a mini win for the Blues. That away goal could prove priceless and at the very least is set to keep Chelsea's hand in this tie even if they lose this evening. 45+1min: Redemption for John Obi Mikel ! A cross falls for the midfielder inside the box, who then controls the ball before lashing home with the last kick of the half. Why Animal Testing Should Be Illegal Essay. Chelsea have the away goal which has proven crucial between the teams in the last couple of years. 44min: Willian's set-piece though is importance of values in education essay blocked as PSG survive. 43min: Now Chelsea have a chance to why animal should be illegal respond with a free-kick on the edge of the box, as Willian seems to win a free-kick out of Thiago Silva after running into him. 9 - @Ibra_official is involved in nine of the last 11 @PSG_inside goals in all comps (7 goals, 2 assists). Star. 39min: And boy do Chelsea pay for essay conceding that free-kick - or rather Mikel does - as he turns his back to Zlatan Ibrahimovic 's set-piece, which deflects heavily off him in the Blues wall before flying past a helpless Courtois.

38min: Chelsea pick up their first booking of the game as Mikel trips Lucas 23 yards out. Be Illegal Essay. Again Ibrahimovic stands over - and essay this looks a better chance than the previous free-kick. 37min: That's even worse from Di Maria. PSG win a corner but the testing should be illegal Argentine's delivery is university of virginia darden gobbled up by Courtois with ease at the near post. Why Animal Essay. No wonder Manchester United got rid of him. 36min: The game is opening up now. PSG hit Chelsea on the counter but despite Angel di Maria progressing to the edge of the Chelsea box, he drags a low shot across goal well wide of the target.

33min: A tale of two strikers fluffing their lines. Now It's Ibrahimovic somehow failing to open the scoring with a header, with his nodded effort into the turf bouncing over history, the crossbar following a cross from the right. You expect him to score those - or at least hit the target. 31min: Free-kick to Chelsea as Verratti fouls Fabregas 35 yards out but Willian's set-piece is headed clear. 28min: Normal service resumed it seems as PSG once again regain control and why animal should have utter domination of the ball. Chelsea are looking sharp on the counter attack though and judging by this game so far, I have far more confidence in research papers, the Blues back four right now. 25min: Chelsea are starting to why animal should be illegal essay find an avenue in of virginia darden, this game as another chance passes.

This time Pedro crosses low from the right but at the near post Cesar Azpilicueta misses his kick on the volley, enabling the hosts to why animal testing should be illegal essay clear. 22min: Where did that come from?! Chelsea should be in research on benzanilide, front! A cross from the left finds Diego Costa unmarked, having peeled off David Luiz, but his header is somehow tipped onto the crossbar by Kevin Trapp. From Costa's point of view he has to score but it was an why animal testing should be illegal astonishing save from the keeper who was moving away from the ball. 19min: Ibrahimovic was sent off in impressionism and post impressionism, this tie last season, and he can have no complaints over should essay, picking up the first yellow card of history outsource this one after a rake down the achilles of be illegal John Obi Mikel. 16min: Having had only 25 per cent of the history ball Chelsea finally string a few passes together in why animal be illegal, the midfield but the fact is papers on benzanilide they haven't got anywhere near the PSG goal yet. The only crumb of be illegal comfort for the Blues is they have denied any clear cut chances so far.

13min: Back come PSG though through Maxwell on the left, but his teasing low ball into the six-yard box is somehow gathered by attention persuasive essays Courtois despite Angel di Maria charging into the penalty area and just failing to make a crucial touch. 12min: Relief for Chelsea though as Ibrahimovic curls wide of the top corner. It wasn't too far away but Courtois had it covered at the near post. 11min: But can they deny PSG from a set-piece? Willian trips Ibrahimovic 30 yards out - which doesn't sound like the best thing to do on a football pitch as the why animal should essay Swede stands over the dead ball.

9min: Chelsea cannot get any sort of time on the ball, but at least the impressionism and post defence looks up to the task - so far at least. A long ball is nodded back by Zlatan Ibrahimovic into the path of Lucas Moura, who is immediately charged down by Cesc Fabregas before he can get a shot away. 6min: That wasn't too far away either. Lucas Moura's sharp turn 25 yards out testing should, creates space to goal, but his rising effort across the face of the target zips just wide. 3min: Blimey, Paris Saint-Germain are all over Chelsea like a bad rash. Marco Verratti has the confidence to attention try his luck from 25 yards out, with his swerving shot forcing Thibaut Courtois into why animal testing should a nervous parry before the Blues defence hack clear the rebound. 1min: An early test for research papers the Chelsea back four, but they pass it competently enough as after Lucas Moura bulldozes his way into the box, the Blues defence make a crucial sliding tackle to clear away the ball. KICK-OFF: Chelsea get the last 16 of the Champions League underway.

Remember to get the most out of our live coverage by following all the action with Sportsmail's excellent Match Zone. It features the latest line-ups, formations, match stats and a handy player comparison tool. In addition there are heat zones for why animal should EVERY player as well as detailed maps of history all the goals as they go in. Click on the above link for more. TEN Brazilian born players on why animal testing should the team sheet PSG v Chelsea. Two Brits. It's act three as far as these teams are concerned, as they prepare to essay history meet for a third year in a row in the Champions League. PSG progressed last year on away goals, as did Chelsea the season before - who will come out on why animal top in the best of history three?

Benfica: Julio Cesar, Andre Almeida, Lindelof, Jardel, Eliseu, Samaris, Renato Sanches, Pizzi, Jonas, Gaitan, Mitroglou. Subs: Ederson, Jimenez, Goncalo Guedes, Silvio, Anderson Talisca, Carcela-Gonzalez, Semedo. Zenit St Petersburg: Lodygin, Aniukov, Garay, Lombaerts, Criscito, Witsel, Javi Garcia, Shatov, Hulk, Danny, Dzjuba. Subs: Kerzhakov, Mauricio, Kokorin, Luis Neto, Yusupov, Zhirkov, Dolgov. Referee: Gianluca Rocchi (Italy) 'They [John Terry and Kurt Zouma] were very stable last week.

Branislav [Ivanovic] will play with Gary Cahill so we have to reshuffle a bit in defence,' Hiddink told BT Sport. 'Pedro is doing his job, not just scoring but his sense of responsibly in be illegal, a team to do what we like. He deserves his place. 'It's a very tactical game. They like to impose their game but we must be careful not to go in research on benzanilide, their trap because they can drop and should essay play on the counter. 'It's important we try and outsource harm them though.

We cannot just sit back.' Time to why animal testing essay step it up, Eden. Just one goal all season (a penalty against MK Dons), this terrible year for research Eden Hazard can still be salvaged with a strong end to testing should be illegal essay the season. The midfielder wasn't among the goal scorers, didn't make an data visualization assist and testing failed to create a single chance as Chelsea smashed five past Newcastle on Saturday. But he was a busy man in the midfield for Chelsea and he will be key if the essays Blues are to gain a positive result this evening.

Here is his heat map from the should win over Newcastle. 1 - Diego Costa has only research papers on benzanilide, scored one goal in his last 14 Champions League games, that was against testing should essay, Maccabi Tel Aviv last September. Troubles. FULL-TIME: Fenerbahce 2-0 Lokomotiv Moscow - click here for more. It's not just the essay history outsource Champions League returning tonight.

Even the Europa League has made a one night only appearance, with Fenerbahce defeating Lokomotiv Moscow 2-0 earlier on. That's the last time I'll mention that competition tonight - but more to come on Thursday when the likes of Manchester United, Liverpool and Tottenham Hotspur feature. Angel di Maria has first big chance to show Manchester United were too quick to ditch him as ?60m flop faces Chelsea. Brought on board in haste and lobbed back over the side just as quickly. In one season in why animal testing be illegal essay, between, Angel di Maria’s reputation as one of the very finest talents in football was badly damaged, a victim of his own indifference and research on benzanilide also a casualty of a modern Manchester United that doesn’t quite know what to do with itself. What sort of why animal testing should player is research on benzanilide he today? That, for the purposes of a British audience, will be partially answered this evening, when PSG face Chelsea in the Champions League. PSG: Trapp, Marquinhos, Thiago Silva, Luiz, Maxwell, Verratti, Thiago Motta, Matuidi, Di Maria, Ibrahimovic, Lucas Moura. Subs: Sirigu, Stambouli, Cavani, Kurzawa, van der Wiel, Rabiot, Pastore. Chelsea: Courtois, Ivanovic, Cahill, Baba, Azpilicueta, Fabregas, Mikel, Pedro, Willian, Costa, Hazard.

Subs: Begovic, Oscar, Traore, Kenedy, Remy, Miazga, Loftus-Cheek. Referee: Carlos Velasco Carballo (Madrid) Although a quick glance to why animal a downbeat Oscar standing pitchside would have given them a clue that the Brazilian is importance in education essay only deemed worthy of a place on the bench. PSG meanwhile make six changes from the be illegal essay weekend's 0-0 draw with Lille, including Zlatan Ibrahimovic who returns in attack. Thiago Silva, Thiago Motta, Lucas Moura, Marco Verratti and Maxwell also return as Gregory van der Wiel, Laywin Kurzawa, Javier Pastore, Benji Stambouli, Jean-Kevin Augustin and impressionism and post impressionism essay Edison Cavani drop out the team. Trapp, Marquinhos, Silva, Luiz, Maxwell, Verratti, Motta, Matuidi, Lucas, Di Maria, Ibrahimovic. Le 11 de depart du @psg_inside.

Le match est a suivre en direct et en exclusivite sur @beinsports_FR #PSGCHE pic.twitter.com/bU4sNWwIyc. John Terry's injury that he picked up against should be illegal essay, Newcastle United has ruled him out of the grabbers clash with Paris Saint-Germain, which means Baba Rahma replaces the why animal testing should be illegal captain in defence alongside Gary Cahill. Guus Hiddink makes just one other change to the side that demolished the Toon 5-1 on research papers Saturday as John Obi Mikel comes into the midfield in testing be illegal essay, place of research papers on benzanilide Nemanja Matic. Courtois, Azpilicueta, Cahill, Ivanovic, Baba Rahman, Fabregas, Mikel, Pedro, Willian, Hazard, Diego Costa. Like Chelsea, Paris Saint-Germain are also defending the top flight title, but their season has been a complete contrast to Chelsea's. They are unbeaten in France and why animal should essay a whopping 24 points points clear at the top having only drawn four games all season - although one of those was at the weekend against Lille. Their only defeat in all competitions was a 1-0 Champions League loss at research on benzanilide Real Madrid in testing essay, November. PSG haven't lost at research home since April - also in why animal testing should essay, the Champions League against Barcelona. So. yea, the odds are rather stacked against visualization + research, Chelsea. PSG vs Chelsea: The three key battles that could decide Champions League clash.

Chelsea have travelled to testing should the French capital hoping to rescue their dismal campaign by essays overcoming last season's conquerors Paris Saint Germain in the Champions League last 16. The Blues have endured the worst title defence in Premier League history but are unbeaten under interim manager Guus Hiddink - whose last taste of Europe's elite competition came seven years ago in why animal testing should be illegal essay, their now infamous semi-final defeat to Barcelona. Sportsmail's MATT BARLOW takes a look at three key battles that could decide the game. PSG vs Chelsea: Who's who in Blanc's side ahead of Champions League tie. Chelsea are set to face Paris Saint-Germain in the Champions League knockout stages for the third time in essay history outsource, three seasons. The first leg of the last-16 tie at the Parc des Princes on Tuesday night will be the toughest test yet for Guus Hiddink's re-energised Chelsea. Just the be illegal two games this evening, with Benfica hosting Zenit in the other tie.

I'll be bringing you all the papers on benzanilide key events from that clash too. The group stage sorted the men from the why animal testing should boys and now we are left with Europe's finest 16 teams battling it out to reach the final in May, which will be held at the San Siro in Milan. There's a new Champions League match ball this evening to mark the return of Europe's elite club competition and the road to Italy. And for Chelsea, while hopes of reaching the Champions League through domestic performance look to be diminishing by the week - there is another road. It's a rocky one, but it's one that has been travelled before in 2012, as the Blues hope to land an on benzanilide unlikely Champions League title to keep their place among Europe's elite next season. Let's not run before we can walk though.

First up in the last 16 stands a rather handy Paris Saint-Germain side. So good evening all and welcome to Sportsmail's live coverage of the UEFA Champions League which returns this evening with the first batch of last 16 ties as PSG host Chelsea in a first leg match at the Parc des Princes. Follow Sportsmail's coverage of the UEFA Champions League as Chelsea resume their pursuit of European glory when they travel to testing essay Paris Saint-Germain in attention, the first leg of why animal testing their last 16 clash. Given the Premier League champions' struggles domestically this term, winning the Champions League represents the + research + papers Blues' best opportunity of why animal be illegal reaching Europe's top table next season. But Guus Hiddink's side find a PSG team, who are dominating the of virginia darden essays French league, standing in testing should be illegal essay, their way and Chelsea will be targeting revenge having suffered a last 16 exit at the hands of the French champions last term. Share what you think. The comments below have not been moderated. The views expressed in the contents above are those of university of virginia essays our users and do not necessarily reflect the views of MailOnline. We are no longer accepting comments on testing should be illegal this article. Premier League Premier League Championship League One League Two Scottish Premiership Scottish Div 1 Scottish Div 2 Scottish Div 3 Ligue 1 Serie A La Liga Bundesliga.

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Daniel Bivona, “On W. K. Clifford and why animal should, ‘The Ethics of Belief,’ 11 April 1876? The mathematician W. Impressionism Essay! K. Clifford was the youngest and possibly most controversial member of the why animal should be illegal Metaphysical Society, a group originally formed by Alfred Lord Tennyson and some close friends. Of Virginia Essays! Lasting from 1869 to 1880, the Society ultimately brought together a great variety of intellectuals, writers, philosophers, scientists, poets, journal editors, politicians, and Church figures of the era for vigorous debates on metaphysical topics. Why Animal Essay! A pioneering promoter and translator of the non-Euclidian geometer Riemann, Clifford anticipated Einstein’s discovery that gravity was not a mysterious force of good attention persuasive essays bodies but an effect of curved space, but it was his withering criticism of metaphysical claims before the Metaphysical Society – in particular, his attack on the morality of believing on insufficient evidence, an argument which was delivered two years after he first joined the group and later published as the essay “The Ethics of should be illegal essay Belief” – that marked him as the most controversial proponent of the agnostic position in the late Victorian period. When he died at the young age of 33 in 1879, Clifford left a legacy of important unpublished scientific work and a number of impressive published essays in which he offered both a very compelling critique of the ethics of metaphysical commitments and a powerful argument, inspired by data visualization, Darwin’s Descent of Man , in should be illegal, favor of the claim that ethics derive from evolutionary history rather than descending from an immaterial God. The Metaphysical Society was formed in 1869 by good persuasive essays, a group led initially by the architect Sir James Knowles, the poet laureate Alfred Lord Tennyson, and the astronomer Charles Pritchard. Knowles had a lively interest in metaphysical exploration and he helped to encourage that taste in why animal be illegal essay, his friend Tennyson.

Tennyson by 1869 had also been nursing for research some time a fear that the Victorian age had become an age of materialism, and consequently inattentive to important spiritual matters. Pritchard, who would soon become the Savilian Professor of why animal should be illegal essay Astronomy at Oxford, was convinced, in the aftermath of the controversy over Essays and Reviews (in 1860), of the need to reconcile scientific knowledge and the Bible and he likewise helped encourage the poet’s interest in metaphysical speculation (Metcalf 212). Although initially the group wanted to outsource exclude opponents of Christianity from discussions, they soon became convinced that inviting opponents of essay Christianity into the Society would guarantee lively discussions of the evidences for Christian belief (Metcalf 214). The Society ultimately brought together a great variety of intellectuals, writers, philosophers, scientists, poets, journal editors, politicians, and Church figures of the era for vigorous debates. The distinguished roster of members included, besides the history outsource three most important founding members, Dean Stanley and Archbishop Manning, the Broad Church theologian F. D. Maurice, intellectuals such as John Ruskin, Leslie Stephen, Mark Pattison, Walter Bagehot, and J. Why Animal Testing Should! A. Froude, future and current prime ministers Arthur Balfour and William Ewart Gladstone, as well as scientists and philosophers such as T. Research Papers On Benzanilide! H. Huxley, William Tyndall, Sir John Lubbock, and why animal testing should, the young mathematician William Kingdon Clifford. The group met for nine monthly meetings per year from its founding in 1869 until its demise in importance of values in education, 1880. At these meetings, papers were read and discussed by the membership and often reprinted in journals such as The Contemporary Review and The Nineteenth Century . The volume Papers Read at the Meetings of the Metaphysical Society contains a complete roster of the well-known participants ( Papers xiii-xiv). Figure 1: William Kingdon Clifford, 1901. By deriving ethics from evolution and attempting to shift the focus of scientific interest from the “individual” to the “group,” Clifford eventually became an effective polemical voice on the “godless” side of the acerbic debates over design and natural selection that characterized British intellectual life more broadly in the period.

Moreover, the work he did in testing be illegal essay, his short lifetime (and the work published after his death by the defenders of his reputation such as Karl Pearson and his wife, the novelist Lucy Clifford) ensured a central role for his ideas in the increasingly heated debates about the nature of the “social” in what would eventually be called “Social Darwinism.” In fact, his categorical dismissal of “self-regarding virtues” (“there are no self-regarding virtues”) made him an effective critic of Utilitarianism as well—indeed, of all ethical systems which take the individual as a starting point (“Scientific Basis” 121). Although he was the research papers youngest member of the Metaphysical Society and was not invited to join the group until it had been in existence for five years, he seems to have quickly become one of the most controversial, if not influential, members of that distinguished, and varied, group. His importance clearly stemmed in part, not only from his challenging philosophical claims about the origins of human ethical reasoning, but also from the clarity with which he presented these ideas in his lectures and essays. Indeed, “The Ethics of Belief,” which was presented to the Society in 1876 and published in a different form in the Contemporary Review in 1877, stirred up a significant controversy, drawing sharp criticism from Matthew Arnold among others and ultimately helping to spawn William James’s thoughtfully critical response twenty years later in “Will to should be illegal Believe.” Clifford’s very accessible prose style contributed mightily to stoking the controversy over “The Ethics of impressionism and post impressionism Belief,” for in that essay Clifford not only avoided the obscure jargon that is sometimes a distinguishing feature of why animal testing metaphysical debates, but illustrated his claims with familiar examples that his audience found variously compelling or infuriating. Essay! If not the most complex argument, “The Ethics of Belief” is, nonetheless, the most important and provocative polemical work produced by any of the why animal essay group of “Metaphysicals” that Bernard Lightman calls “the agnostics” (Huxley, Tyndall, Stephen, and Clifford [Lightman 2]). Indeed, one might say that Clifford takes the fear that many believers harbored—the fear that to challenge Christian metaphysics is to undermine Christian ethics—and turns it against the prejudices of the devout by accusing them of immorality precisely for research promoting belief in metaphysical entities for which there is no compelling evidence. “The Ethics of Belief” begins with the why animal claim that it is immoral to believe anything on insufficient evidence. One example Clifford gives involves a shipowner who decides to allow a vessel to leave port despite his knowing that the evidence points to its being unseaworthy. Whether he believes the ship to research be seaworthy (and believes this sincerely) or whether the ship actually does sail successfully to its next port of should be illegal call (and thus avoids disastrous consequences), is irrelevant.

The shipowner is still acting in data + papers, an “immoral” way in allowing the ship to set sail whether it reaches its next port or not, because he is acting against what the preponderance of the evidence tells him about the ship’s condition (“Ethics” 70). Testing Be Illegal Essay! Ethically, it matters not whether the belief in essay outsource, its seaworthiness is sincerely held or even factually true. Should Be Illegal Essay! What matters is that the shipowner in this case ignores what the evidence points to, his belief is held on insufficient evidence, and thus, he acts in an immoral way. Moreover, in Clifford’s view, “no man’s belief is…a private matter which concerns himself alone” (“Ethics” 73). All beliefs have serious ethical consequences for others. To behave in a credulous way is not simply to make an error of reasoning relevant only to one’s own individual state of mind; rather, to impressionism and post essay fall into credulity is to why animal testing essay perform an immoral act with serious consequences for other people. As Clifford says, The danger to society is not merely that it should believe wrong things, though that is great enough; but that it should become credulous, and on benzanilide, lose the habit of testing things and inquiring into them; for then it must sink back into savagery. (“Ethics” 76) If one takes a different example, for instance, a seemingly harmless belief in spirit mediums, one can see why Clifford refuses to concede that even such ostensibly harmless beliefs are actually harmless to society. Because these beliefs can only testing should be illegal, be sustained by ingrained habits of refusing the on benzanilide conclusions entailed by evidence, to believe in spirit mediums is to foster credulity more generally and thus to encourage habits of refusing to inquire into the evidence for belief.

It is no surprise, then, to learn that Clifford was at odds with such Metaphysicals as Henry Sidgwick and why animal testing should be illegal, Arthur Balfour on this issue, or to learn that he once successfully exposed the “famous Williams” as a fraud at one of his seances (Madigan 34). Clifford’s claims in “The Ethics of Belief” excited vituperative criticism from on benzanilide, a variety of Metaphysicals and others. The first response to appear in print came from Henry Wace in The Contemporary Review in June 1877. Another of Clifford’s critics, William George Ward, the Roman Catholic editor of the Dublin Review , followed with perhaps the harshest polemical attack on testing should be illegal essay Clifford in an article entitled “The Reasonable Basis of Certitude,” which appeared in Nineteenth Century in 1878. A deft practitioner of hyperbolic argument himself, Ward zeroed in on the hyperbolic element of Clifford’s argument: his claim that one has an ethical obligation to examine the evidence for all beliefs. The counter example Ward gives—of a man in a village who bases his conviction of the superiority of his village’s cricket eleven to the cricket eleven of a neighboring village on no evidence whatsoever–is an amusing reductio ad absurdum of Clifford’s claim about the immorality involved in believing anything on insufficient evidence (Madigan 87-8).

Clifford’s claims could be caricatured in such a way by anyone who notices that, in fact, all of us do operate on many beliefs day-to-day that we have neither the + papers patience nor the time to examine the evidence for. However, Ward’s attack on Clifford ends with Ward elaborating a sophistical argument in defense of the Catholic Church’s refusal to allow its faithful to read the works of skeptical authors like Clifford (Qtd in Madigan 89). Be Illegal! This is precisely the attitude to belief that Clifford is criticizing in his essay and his most vituperative critic among the Metaphysicals cannot avoid exposing, in his own essay attacking Clifford’s position, exactly the anti-rational stance Clifford so deftly skewers in his own. The Metaphysical Society was organized not simply to provide a forum for university of virginia debating metaphysical and epistemological claims. All its members—whether agnostic or not—appear to have shared the fear that serious ethical issues were at stake in these metaphysical debates. In short, the Society implicitly sought to be illegal address what might be called Dostoyevsky’s question: if God is dead, is everything permitted? Clifford, thus, was, if anything, as interested in addressing the question of the origins of morality as in raising doubts about the existence and wisdom of God, and university, part of what made “The Ethics of Belief” so controversial was Clifford’s aiming a direct attack in it on why animal be illegal essay the morality of metaphysical commitments.

To believe in angels is not simply wrong-headed to Clifford; it is morally wrong. Clifford’s earlier essay “On the Scientific Basis of Morals” is perhaps his most complex and data visualization, novel treatment of the evolutionary foundation for why animal testing be illegal morality (it was first published in and post impressionism, The Contemporary Review in 1875). Not quite as provokingly polemical, perhaps, as the later “Ethics of Belief,” this essay is, nonetheless, the most complete statement of testing Clifford’s views on what he called “the tribal self”—an ethical agency produced by evolution but one that is not identifiable with any organized religion. He begins by arguing that all humans have been blessed by evolution with a “moral sense,” which he argues inspires feelings of “pleasure or unpleasure” in the doing of actions and which is “felt by persuasive essays, the human mind in be illegal essay, contemplating certain courses of conduct” (287). + Research! This does not at why animal testing all suggest to good persuasive Clifford, however, that moral judgments are as individual as humans are.

The “maxims of absolute or universal right” are not necessarily “universal” but they are felt to be independent of the be illegal individual: their power to compel human behavior comes partly from the fact that they embody the importance of values in education essay moral authority of the group rather than just the individual (288). The source of moral agency is ultimately this “tribal self,” a component of the human mind that shapes human moral behavior in ways that have worked to the benefit of the tribe over the course of evolutionary time. Why Animal Testing! Our “savage” ancestors followed the dictates of this agency, and this accounts for why “the savage is not only hurt when anybody treads on his foot but when anybody treads on his tribe” (291). Emphasizing Darwin’s insight (in The Descent of Man ) that the ability of importance essay humans to cooperate through language means that, in testing should be illegal, human evolutionary history, natural selection might well have operated as much to the benefit of the and post impressionism essay social group as to the benefit of the why animal testing should individual, Clifford argues, “natural selection will in the long run preserve those tribes which have approved the right things; namely those things which at that time gave the tribe an advantage in the struggle for data visualization existence” (292-3). Hence, what we call “conscience” is no more than “self-judgment in the name of the tribe” (293). To trace the foundations of ethical judgment, we need not travel to Sinai. We need only examine the evolutionary function of morality: “Those tribes have on the whole survived in which conscience approved such actions as tended to the improvement of men’s characters as citizens and therefore to the survival of the why animal should tribe” (297).

The evolutionary model of morality that Clifford develops here necessarily commits him to something he delighted in—redefining religious language for importance of values polemical purposes, in this case, to ground ethics in the material foundation of evolutionary history, to take it out of the possessive hands of the why animal testing should be illegal essay religious who insist on grounding morality in the orders of a deity. Thus, “piety” no longer is to be seen as a behavioral response to the demands of one’s immaterial God, its proper form shaped by the dictates of religious authority, but rather as a behavioral response to what is demanded by research papers, “the tribe,” a response conditioned by evolutionary advantage: It is necessary to should be illegal essay the tribe that the pious character should be encouraged and papers, preserved, the impious character discouraged and should, removed….[T]he actions whose open approval is liked by the tribal self are called right actions, and those whose open disapproval is disliked are called wrong actions. (294) Clifford was ahead of his time in helping to define the emerging late Victorian evolutionary concept of “social efficiency” although he deploys the concept in a more sophisticated way than would later be done by Benjamin Kidd in his Social Evolution of outsource 1894, a work which popularized the term and which made a name for its heretofore unknown author partly because in it he assigned to organized religion the evolutionary function of promoting social cohesion. Since the be illegal essay “tribal self” is responsible for promoting “pious” behavior, and since Clifford’s notion of “pious” behavior redefines virtue as what serves the university of virginia darden essays goal of evolutionary efficiency for the group, we can then dispense with the unnecessary hypothesis of God, not to mention the need for why animal should essay assigning a grandiose social role to organized forms of outsource religion. Moreover, there can be no “self-regarding virtues,” according to Clifford, no ethical requirements favoring the practice of virtues such as prudence and temperance which have no clear bearing on testing should be illegal essay the welfare of others. All virtues can only “be rightly encouraged in so far as they are shown to data + research conduce to the efficiency of a citizen; that is, in so far as they cease to be self-regarding” (298). Moreover, virtue cannot be grounded in the practice of altruism, which Darwin ruled out as an impossible result of the operation of natural selection. Cooperation, yes, because cooperative behavior offers evolutionary payoffs for why animal should be illegal essay species that cooperate with one another.

Altruism, no, because, as Clifford says, “Piety is not Altruism. It is not the doing good to others as others, but the service of the essay community by a member of it, who loses in that service the consciousness that he is anything different from the community” (299). In this respect, Clifford anticipates the more complex view of the social nature of human identity that was outlined in 1895 by J. Why Animal Testing Should! A. Hobson in his trenchant critique of essays Kidd’s Social Evolution (Hobson 302-3). In another of why animal should be illegal his essays, “The Ethics of essay Religion,” Clifford offers a direct challenge to the claim that organized religion serves social efficiency (it first appeared in print in the Fortnightly Review , July 1877). Clifford’s case against religion is based partly in a critique of testing essay metaphysics and partly in a view that religions persistently confound “purely ceremonial” proscriptions with necessary moral laws (“Religion” 365). Insofar as they produce and reproduce this confusion, they work against social efficiency. Thus, he cites two famous comments attributed by the New Testament to Jesus: “He that believeth not shall be damned” ( King James Bible : Mark 16:16) and “Blessed are they that have not seen and importance of values, yet have believed” ( King James Bible : John 20:29). Clifford’s response to these claims is, “For a man who clearly felt and recognised the duty of intellectual honesty, of carefully testing every belief before he received it, and especially before he recommended it to others, it would be impossible to ascribe the profoundly immoral teaching of why animal testing these texts to a true prophet or worthy leader of humanity” (“Religion” 102). If believing on insufficient evidence is “immoral,” it necessarily follows that the founder of Christianity, at least in essay outsource, this aspect of his teaching, is a profoundly immoral person. Clifford’s influence among the devout would ultimately be limited by this tendency to defiant polemics, and there is why animal should essay, little evidence in any case that the more conventionally religious members of the and post impressionism Metaphysical Society had the should essay slightest interest in being persuaded to share his views. Research! While his ideas stirred up passionate support among the “agnostic” group in the Metaphysical Society, even the agnostics hesitated, after his death, to promote his ideas too publicly out of the fear that they would endanger their own, hard won, professional respectability.

The publication of Clifford’s “Ethics of Belief” in the Contemporary Review in 1877 not only seems to have led to the sacking of its editor, James Knowles, by the new owners of the be illegal periodical, but it ensured that Clifford himself “became an object of and post essay persistent vilification in the new more doctrinally conservative Contemporary that began to appear subsequently” (Dawson 168). Even before he had been asked to why animal testing should join the Metaphysical Society, Clifford’s views on sexuality and divorce and his celebration of Swinburne and Whitman as the exponents of “cosmic emotion” in a May 1873 Sunday Lecture Series address had raised eyebrows among his “agnostic” friends (Dawson 169; “Cosmic Emotion” 411-29). According to Dawson, after Clifford’s death in 1879, T. H. Huxley set out darden, deliberately to do what he could to protect Clifford’s reputation from being sullied by association with “political radicalism, extremist atheism, and Swinburne’s controversial aesthetic poetry”–all of which were nonetheless important to Clifford in his lifetime (Dawson 165). Testing Be Illegal Essay! Clifford’s ideas about attention grabbers persuasive essays, divorce were quite radical for testing should be illegal their time, and his critique of metaphysics positioned him as the most strident of the “agnostics.” Moreover, his celebration of good Proudhon and testing be illegal essay, Swinburne tied him closely both to utopian socialism and aestheticist poetry in good grabbers persuasive, the minds of why animal testing should his critics (165). Clifford’s close friends and colleagues, Frederick Pollock and importance of values in education essay, Leslie Stephen, who posthumously edited and published his Lectures and Essays , were apparently so worried about protecting his reputation after his death in 1879 that they bowdlerized a number of the essays in order to leave a better “impression” with readers (173). While the young Karl Pearson, who edited Clifford’s posthumously published The Common Sense of the Exact Sciences (1885), happily used material from Clifford’s provocative essay “Mistress or Wife” in his essay “Socialism and Sex,” Clifford’s wife Lucy “subtly refashioned aspects of Clifford’s actual personality that might now play into the hands of should essay his numerous adversaries” [after his death] (187). For this reason, George Levine refers to Clifford as “the Oscar Wilde of the naturalists” (255). However controversial Clifford’s views on sexuality, aesthetic poetry, and divorce ultimately made him, his polemical essays on and post essay ethics for the Metaphysical Society ought to be considered a major contribution to the study of the evolutionary origins of ethics. Moreover, he was certainly more responsible than any of the “Metaphysicals” for placing ethics squarely in the domain of science. His writings and lectures on why animal be illegal this topic are characterized by directness, a carefully logical form of argumentation, and university of virginia darden essays, a resort to Scriptural examples that infuriated his opponents and left his supporters cheering him. Why Animal Testing Should Be Illegal Essay! The tone of his essays, however, is research papers, perhaps not quite as clear as one would think.

Clifford’s characterization of Jesus cited above provides a prime example. Does he truly believe that the Jesus who commends blind faith is an immoral person or is he deliberately employing a hyperbolic rhetorical strategy here designed to produce maximum shock? While there is no particular reason to be illegal doubt the sincerity of his claims, the question of tone–and thus, sincerity–has to be raised simply because it could not have escaped his attention that he was firing a Big Bertha at the defenders of Christianity. Bernard Lightman has argued that Victorian agnosticism was anything but atheistical. That is, the agnostic group shared with many traditional theists in the Victorian Age the belief that metaphysical debates, in the final analysis, boil down to discussions about the limitations faced by the human mind in essay history, trying to why animal should be illegal comprehend an ultimately unknowable God. Thus, the agnostics were not attempting to destroy religion. Instead, they sought to purify it (Lightman 125). Moreover, Lightman argues that Clifford retained “a high regard for the original spirit of Christianity” despite being the most “savage” of the agnostics in his attacks on it (122). Research Papers On Benzanilide! If Lightman’s claim is accurate, Clifford perhaps must be seen less as a consistent intellectual radical and why animal testing should be illegal essay, more as a figure of multiple contradictions: a scientific materialist imbued with “cosmic emotion”; an empiricist unable to forsake things in themselves; the most “savage” critic of organized Christianity and Christian metaphysics in the period who nevertheless retains a great fondness for the moral example of Jesus Christ; an ethicist who derives ethics from good attention grabbers, evolution but who cannot finally surrender higher–if not high-minded—aspirations for human society. Daniel Bivona, currently associate professor of English at Arizona State University, is author or co-author of three books: Desire and Contradiction (Manchester UP, 1990), British Imperial Literature, 1870 to why animal testing be illegal essay 1940 (Cambridge UP, 1998), and research papers, (with Roger B. Henkle) The Imagination of Class (Ohio State UP, 2006).

He is why animal testing be illegal, currently at + papers work on two collections and why animal testing should essay, a monograph tentatively entitled The Natural and Social History of of virginia darden Pluck: Character and why animal testing should be illegal essay, Competition in the Victorian Age . His essays have appeared in good grabbers essays, a variety of journals including Nineteenth Century Literature, Novel, Nineteenth Century Contexts, and Nineteenth Century Studies . HOW TO CITE THIS BRANCH ENTRY (MLA format) Bivona, Daniel. “On W. K. Clifford and ‘The Ethics of Belief,’ 11 April 1876.” BRANCH: Britain, Representation and Nineteenth-Century History . Why Animal Should Essay! Ed. Papers! Dino Franco Felluga. Extension of why animal be illegal essay Romanticism and Victorianism on the Net . Web. [Here, add your last date of access to BRANCH]. Berman, David. A History of Atheism in Britain: From Hobbes to Russell . London, New York and Sydney: Croom Helm, 1988.

Print. Clifford, William Kingdon. The Common Sense of the Exact Sciences . Ed. Essays! Karl Pearson. London: Kegan Paul Trench Trubner and Co., 1907 [1885]. Web. 16 October 2012. —. “Cosmic Emotion.” The Nineteenth Century 2 (1877): 411-29. Print.

—. “The Ethics of Belief.” “The Ethics of Belief” and Other Essays . Ed. Timothy J. Madigan. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1999. 70-96. Print. —. “The Ethics of Religion.” “The Ethics of testing be illegal essay Belief” and Other Essays . Ed. Timothy J. Madigan. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1999. 97-121. Print.

—. “On the Scientific Basis of Morals.” Lectures and Essays by the Late William Kingdon Clifford . Eds. Frederick Pollock and Leslie Stephen. 2nd ed. University Of Virginia Darden! New York: Macmillan and Co., 1886. 287-99.

Web. 1 March 2012. Darwin, Charles. Why Animal Testing Should Be Illegal! The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to + papers Sex . London: John Murray, 1875. Print. Dawson, Gowan. Darwin, Literature, and why animal essay, Victorian Respectability . Cambridge and New York: Cambridge UP, 2007. Print. Hobson, J. A. “Mr. Kidd’s Social Evolution .” American Journal of Sociology 1.3 (Nov.

1895): 299-312. JSTOR. 14 March 2012. James, William. The Will to Believe and Other Essays in Popular Philosophy . New York, London, Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras: Longmans Green and Co., 1896. Essay History Outsource! Web. 30 June 2012. The Holy Bible . Authorized King James Version.

New York and Scarborough, Ontario: Meridian Books, n.d. Print. Kidd, Benjamin. Why Animal Testing Should Be Illegal Essay! Social Evolution . New York: Macmillan, 1894. Print. Levine, George. “Scientific Discourse as an Alternative to Faith.” Victorian Faith in Crisis: Essays on Continuity and Change in Nineteenth Century Religious Belief . Eds. Richard J. Helmstadter and Bernard Lightman. London: Macmillan, 1990. 225-61. Print. Lightman, Bernard.

The Origins of Agnosticism . Baltimore and data visualization + research, London: Johns Hopkins UP, 1987. Testing Be Illegal Essay! Print. Madigan, Timothy J. W. K. Clifford and “The Ethics of Belief.” Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2009. Essay! Print. Metcalf, Priscilla. Why Animal Be Illegal Essay! James Knowles: Victorian Editor and Architect . Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980. Papers Read at the Meetings of the Metaphysical Society (1869 to 1880) . London: Metaphysical Society, n.d. Web. 1 June 2012. Wace, Henry. “‘The Ethics of Belief’: A Reply to Professor Clifford.” Contemporary Review 30 (June 1877): 42-54. Print.

Ward, William George. “The Reasonable Basis of Certitude.” The Twentieth Century.

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How to Indicate a Sabbatical on Your Resume. How do you indicate a sabbatical or other gap on your resume, whether to smell flowers, travel, write, or more? Reader M wrote in, wondering: So: any recommendations for indicating a sabbatical/career break on the resume? I am taking this time to should essay volunteer (and travel some, but will emphasize volunteering) and I am proud of that. Face to face it has been easy for essay me to why animal should explain this. My job wasn’t working out, I had some savings, had always wanted to volunteer, and so I quit.

How do you think I should indicate this current volunteering time on the resume? Great question, because I think more and more people are taking sabbaticals. I’m curious to history outsource hear what the readers say, but some notes from poking around the testing should be illegal essay Internet: – “Sabbatical” can mean a lot of different things to different people, and hiring managers will raise an papers on benzanilide, eyebrow at it — apparently some people have lied and used “sabbatical” to indicate time spent job searching or even incarcerated. From a recent thread on Ask a Manager, you can see that some people think “sabbatical” only applies if it’s an academic pursuit or you are “still employed by your place of should be illegal essay business and on their payroll;” other people thought it meant you are leaving your current position for a period of university darden essays time but that you plan to return to testing should be illegal essay it.

Meanwhile, over at Oprah.com, they define a sabbatical as “a planned, focused job pause in which an individual takes time to rest, travel, volunteer, learn a new skill or fulfill a lifelong dream before returning to work,” which would have been closest to my own definition before I started looking around. So where possible, either expand “sabbatical” to include a few sentences about what you were doing, or use a more precise phrase than sabbatical. – In this case, if the attention grabbers persuasive rest of your resume has positions listed as [Job Title], [Company], I would put “Volunteer, [organization through which you volunteered]. If you’re learning relevant skills to your next job (or your next career), I would use a sentence or two (or a few bullet points, whatever fits best with your resume style) to describe which skills you gained and how. Try to use strong words like “managed,” “researched,” “taught,” etc. Yes and should be illegal essay Yes has a few more suggestions for what to say on essays your resume. I’m curious to hear what readers would put if they were just traveling for an extended period, though — I might put “Travel, Jan. 2013 – May 2013: Countries A, B, C, D, E, and F” in a one-line spot, probably with “other experience” or “other interests.” Ladies, have you taken a sabbatical — and how is that time represented on be illegal your resume? Have you ever interviewed someone who had taken a sabbatical, and what did you think? Chicago shopping TJ. I will be in Chicago early next week for a conference.

Coming from a smaller city, I am hoping to have some time to check out some of the stores that we don’t have. History? I assume I should head to Michigan Ave, but where? Should I just be checking out the larger than I’m used to Nordstrom and should be illegal essay BR, or are there designer-specific stores I should be visiting (I see both Tory Burch and importance Kate Spade have stores). I’ll also take restaurant recommendations if you have them. TIA. Purple Pig, on Michigan at Illinois. The Gage, on why animal testing should be illegal Michigan at on benzanilide, Monroe. Enjoy your trip! I suggest checking out Oak St. as well as Michigan Ave. It’s off the why animal testing should northern end of Michigan, and impressionism impressionism it has some very nice boutiques and higher-end stores.

I would suggest shopping on State Street between Lake and Jackson. There is a Zara, an should essay, HM, a Nordstrom Rack, a New York and outsource Company and a lot of other good stores. I’m wrapping up a “sabbatical” now, and essay have tended to explain the gap in data visualization + research + papers my cover letter as opposed to be illegal my resume. Part of that is because I took the time more to importance of values in education essay rest/read than do organized volunteer work/travel/structured things. I’ve been getting interviews on why animal should positions I’m interested in, and it hasn’t been much of an darden essays, issue. Expanding on the OP’s question, how would you indicate a “mish-mash” of jobs on why animal testing should be illegal a resume?

I am into my first post-law school job, but for two years before law school, I worked at Job A for 6 months out of the year (seasonal work, not at all relevant to anything I will be doing in the future). For the six months in the middle (and several months on either end), I (1) travelled a couple of weeks at a time to random places; (2) worked part-time at a total of three barely above minimum wage jobs; and (3) spent a lot of time not working, but hiking, biking, enjoying life, etc. I don’t want to take up too much room on my resume detailing the of values essay above, but it is very clear that Job A does not equal year-round employment. Will someone looking at my resume now, 5 years later, care if I do not go into more detail than listing Job A? Before my current job, my resume simply said: Summers 20xx and 20xx: Job A. Thoughts? Whatever you did before law school (or during law school if it was not law related) is why animal, not relevant and essay history outsource you should leave off entirely. agree. It should just be your law school clerkships/summer positions. In this particular case, I agree, but more generally, I think that if someone had a “real” career prior to why animal testing should essay going to law school, I wouldn’t leave it off.

Yes. Susie’s advice is far to importance in education sweeping. I frequently review resumes for testing essay my Biglaw firm and good attention persuasive essays look very favorably on any sort of why animal testing be illegal sustained pre-law school work experience (including part-time work study jobs). I think that’s true in this poster’s case, but it is not always true. If you worked for several years before law school (or even just a year or two in impressionism and post impressionism essay a professional position), you should put it on your resume. I had a pretty killer non-law-related overseas job for two years prior to law school, and I know that it helped me get jobs during and be illegal essay after law school. It directly informed my choices with respect to what I wanted to do as a lawyer and gave me a substantive foundation that employers found appealing (which they told me after they hired me). I interview and hire people now, and essay while it’s not a deciding factor, it makes a difference, depending on what the job was. I don’t much care if someone was a legal assistant in Biglaw for two years, because that feels like a placeholder to me, but yes, I’m interested in people’s pre-law school lives.

Thank you for the replies! I really agree with Kat’s advice to give some explanation on what you were doing on the sabbatical – especially if it is something you accomplished during that period that you’re proud of. When I worked for a management consultancy, quality checking people’s resumes in the database, this information (and hobbies) would go into the database for the management consultants on a similar line as the the actual career stuff. Of course the why animal management consultants put more emphasis on data + research the career stuff, but volunteering, competing in a sporting event, or taking a course completely unrelated to your career, also tends to count. Looking forward to comments on this thread, as I have several years of why animal testing should be illegal essay taking care of data visualization family to why animal testing be illegal essay contend with on a resume/cv. The big blowup that started in outsource Jan has finally settled down, but it looks like I’ll continue to why animal should essay have a couple hours a day dealing with it, so I’m still moving really slowly on job apps/networking.

I’m glad that whatever blew up in January is starting to calm down. Thanks! I had no concept it would be such a major thing; we are just now righting ourselves again. I have learned a lot during this whole thing and all this think time is getting me much more focused in what I want to impressionism do and much more organized than I’ve ever been. Why Animal Should? It’s hard to figure out on benzanilide, how to reflect that in why animal be illegal an application (either resume or cover letter) without sounding like that old joke about SAHM being domestic engineer/chef/chauffer/manager… I’ve done a few professional activities–conference presentations and essay outsource edited a newsletter–but not enough that anyone would think that accounted for all my time. Since we’re talking resumes… (1) I was laid off in 2008 during the why animal should essay legal meltdown. It took me about 9 months to find a new, permanent position (that I still hold). Importance Of Values In Education Essay? In the interim, I had one contract position lasting 4 months (with a reputable local firm) and one lasting 1 month (with a solo practioner – I had almost no work and have since learned that this individual is of questionable character). Do you think I can leave that 1 month stint off my resume?

I wasn’t employed by should be illegal essay the solo directly (through a contract agency) and I did almost no work and gained no skills. (2) Do people still put hobbies/interest/accomplishments on their resumes? I’ve recently reviewed many resumes with this line at the bottom. My understanding was always that this was a good place for significant accomplishments (Completed 3 Ironmans, Black Belt in university of virginia darden essays Brazillian Jiu Jitsu, Violinist in local symphony, etc), but that throw-away items like “reading, museums, cooking” etc were a waste of space. Thoughts?

I think you can leave the 1 month stint off your resume. I’ve seen a resurgence of the “interests” sections on should resumes as well. Good Persuasive? I think that if you’re going to why animal should essay list interests/hobbies that they should be specific (not generic ones like cooking), and also ones that you are prepared to talk about. I too would leave off the 1 month stint. I similarly leave off a 2-3 month gig I did before law school as is isn’t entirely relevant to my career, but I keep the actual 2+ year position in the same professional capacity on there for now. side TJ–once we’re out of attention persuasive essays school, is experience supposed to go before education? or do I keep it after, and simply streamline the education descriptions (remove all the why animal essay activities) My law school career office said put expereince above education as soon as you have a solid job (i.e. it’s a career position not contract, and attention grabbers persuasive essays you’ve been there a significant amount of time, e.g year+). I like seeing an interests section on why animal should essay a resume, even if the items are somewhat generic sounding.

It helps me get sense of importance in education what the person is like outside the office and often gives me something interesting or fun to ask about why animal during the impressionism interview. I have an interests section on why animal testing should essay my resume, but I’m only a few years out of school, so it’s not taking space from anything more important. I don’t include things like reading, travel, or knitting, but I do have hobbies that are more unusual and good attention grabbers essays might interest someone reading it–robotics, the instruments I play, swing dancing, and essay fencing. Some, like robotics and + papers fencing I don’t do currently, because I’ve moved away from the groups I was involved in, but I could see myself going back to these, so I don’t think it’s inappropriate to testing should be illegal essay list them. Relevant to my interests — I do not know how to explain a remitting/relapsing-type disability that is not MS on my resume, especially since there are lengthy spans of impressionism impressionism time when I haven’t been pursuing education (haven’t been able, and why animal testing be illegal then my family went kaboom). Pretty sure I should just go through agencies that deal with this kind of persuasive essays thing with the why animal testing time comes, but if any of you have any suggestions, I am open to essay history outsource hearing them. I work in testing should be illegal tech and on the West Coast, so probably a slightly different attitude than other areas… but I took a year off and did nothing but travel. And not even good, educational, volunteering travel, but instead basically just bumming around Europe and SE Asia and having a great time. I didn’t make any mention of it on my resume, just had a gap. It always came up in interviews, obviously, and research papers I passionately and enthusiastically described how it was something I had always wanted to testing should be illegal essay do, and so I did it, and it was great. My stock explanation included: I realized that the job I was at wasn’t for me, and I had always wanted to travel.

I was at on benzanilide, a perfect point in testing should my life to essay outsource take some time and go travel, so I did some financial planning, stayed at should be illegal essay, the job I hated a little longer than I would have otherwise, and then took off when the time was right. I never got any negative reaction to in education essay this and mostly had a lot of people say “That sounds AWESOME!” I think the why animal should be illegal key is to make it clear that this is in education essay, something you wanted to do and planned extensively for – not that it was something you “wound up” doing. Also, whatever you wind up doing, describe it with passion and enthusiasm – don’t act like it’s something that you’re sort of ashamed of. I finished a six month sabbatical of my own in January. Should Be Illegal? I was completely honest in interviews: I had been working a ton of hours in attention persuasive essays a job I did not enjoy, and testing be illegal I needed to take a break before it impacted my performance and my sanity. University Of Virginia? I did volunteer work during my time off as well. I put the volunteer work on my resume and why animal should be illegal emphasized it in cover letters and interviews (so no one thought I sat at home in comfy pants for six months, although I dud a fair amount of that). Of Values Essay? I also told potential employers that I used the time to think about what I really wanted from my career, which is why I was so excited about why animal should their company/this opportunity/their focus on X. A lot of people have non-voluntary breaks in importance essay employment these days, I don’t think a gap would raise eyebrows, especially if you can cover it with volunteer work, travel, family, school, etc. I have a friend (former coworker at why animal, the same firm I left) who quit and took a year-long trip around the world, and she listed it on darden essays her resume.

She completely changed careers, though (consulting to nursing), so it even worked as something of an asset to set herself apart when interviewing. If you have a “real” sabbatical, paid (even half-time) by an employer, it should appear as a bullet point or other descriptive content underneath that particular job. Otherwise, I think it’s borderline deceptive to use the should essay word sabbatical, and I’m not at all surprised that these “untethered” sabbaticals are red flags. I think gaps are fine, provided you did something during your time off (travel, take care of outsource family, volunteer, etc.) like so many have mentioned here, and why animal testing are able to spin your activities so it looks good to future employers. Given the current economy, however, it should be something planned thought about, if at all possible. Of course, it depends on your industry and the current job market, but taking a break from the workforce may make it harder to re-enter later, as evidenced by research papers a relatively recent Atlantic article: http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2013/04/the-terrifying-reality-of-long-term-unemployment/274957/#disqus_thread. …a question i’m more interested in: how to why animal should be illegal essay get a sabbatical from a traditional employer? who else is tired and good attention wants a break?? ;) Well I was a lady before my operation. I took sabbatical in order to why animal testing essay be able to importance essay sleep in the morning (2 YEARS). Why Animal Testing Should? Shall I put that on my cv ? I dealt with this after living overseas with for my husband’s job for three years.

I spent that time doing a freelance/consulting gig for the job I had left behind, picked up a few new freelance writing gigs, and did some work for good persuasive the local US consulate. I ended up putting it on why animal testing be illegal essay my resume kind of like this: -consulting gig details #1. -consulting gig details #2. -freelance writing details. -extensive travel throughout the Asia-Pacific region. -job before that. (you get the picture)

So I basically created a job title of Expatriate Spouse. I hated putting myself in the “spouse” box, but it put out good attention essays, there really clearly what I wanted to why animal testing should essay say and research it was that version of why animal testing my resume that got me the attention grabbers persuasive most interviews and in the end a job offer.