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cal tec thesis Bioengineering research at Caltech focuses on submit, the application of engineering principles to the design, analysis, construction, and manipulation of biological systems, and on the discovery and application of new engineering principles inspired by the properties of biological systems. Areas of research emphasis include: biodevices, bioimaging, bioinspired design, biomechanics, biomedical engineering, cell and an article and a research, tissue engineering, molecular programming, synthetic biology, and systems biology. The goal of the doctoral program is to prepare students to become leading scientists and submit essays for money, engineers in academia and industry. The graduate program aims to educate students to be highly competent in their chosen area of questions research, but also provide them with a broad knowledge foundation in submit for money, bioengineering. Euthanasia Essay! By graduation, students are expected to submit have a working knowledge of bioengineering in in essays, general and an in-depth knowledge of thier chosen area, have independently planned and conducted research experiments in their chosen area, and successfully defended their thesis work in submit for money, an open forum.

Students are not admitted to bernard bailyn origins work toward the M.S. degree. Essays! In special circumstances, the M.S. degree may be awarded, provided Institute requirements are met. Rhodes Essay! In addition to satisfying the general Institute requirements, candidates for a Ph.D. in bioengineering at Caltech must satisfy the Course Requirements. Coursework requirements provide maximum flexibility in building on undergraduate training and complementing the submit, research activities of each student. Students take six electives (one-quarter courses totaling at least 54 units; grade of origins B or higher in each course) selected in for money, consultation with the student’s advisor and the option representative. To maximize the opportunity for research during the early stages of the graduate career, coursework may be spread over the first and second years. Conclusion! Examples of relevant electives include: Biodevices, bioimaging, and biomedical engineering electives: AM/CE 151 ab, APh 109, APh/EE 130, APh/EE 132, BE/APh/Ph 181, BE/EE 189 ab, Bi/BE 177, Bi/BE 227, EE/APh 131, EE/BE/MedE 166, EE/BE/MedE 185, EE/MedE 187, Ph 106 abc, Ph/APh/EE/BE 118 abc. Biomechanics and bioinspired design electives: Ae/APh/CE/ME 101 abc, Ae/APh/CE/ME 102 abc, Ae/BE 242, BE/Bi/MedE 106, BE 159, BE/Ae 243, ChE 103 abc, ChE 151 ab, ChE/Ch 164, ChE 174, Ph 127 abc. Synthetic biology, systems biology, molecular programming, and cell and tissue engineering electives: BE 150, BE 153, BE 159, BE/APh 161, Bi 117, Bi 145 ab, ChE/BE 163, BE/CS/CNS/Bi 191 ab, ChE 130. Biology electives : BE 150, BE 151, Bi/Ch 110, Bi/Ch 111, Bi/Ch 113, Bi 114, Bi 115, Bi 117, Bi 118, Bi 122, Bi 129, Bi 145 ab, BE/Bi 152, BE 153, BE 159, BE/APh 161, Bi/CNS 150. Submit Essays For Money! Math electives : ACM 100 ab, ACM/EE 116, ACM/ESE 118, AM 125 abc, ChE 105, CDS 110, CDS 140.

To assist in the selection of a research area, to foster interactions within the entering class, and to discuss ethical guidelines for scientific research, first-year students participate in three discussion courses totaling 9 units: current research topics in Caltech bioengineering labs (BE 167; 1st term); reading the debate, bioengineering literature (BE 168; 2nd term); responsible conduct of research (Bi 252; 3rd term). The flexibility of the coursework requirements enables research to be the essays for money, primary activity from the very first term in residence. Between An Article And A Research Paper! Students are encouraged to essays for money do two or more research rotations during the first year to sample research activities in multiple labs before selecting a Ph.D. adviser. Rotations are arranged by hockey contacting individual faculty. Each student must select a Ph.D. Essays For Money! adviser by the end of the spring term of the first academic year.

Advisers may be any Caltech faculty member working in an area related to bioengineering. Before the end of the spring term of the first year in residence, each student meets with a faculty committee for a discussion of fellowship first-year progress and second-year plans. The committee must be composed of three faculty, plus the submit, Ph.D. adviser(s), including a minimum of two Bioengineering faculty. The student will give a brief presentation on research progress and abstract, future plans, as well as discuss fundamentals related to the research area. Submit For Money! By the end of the spring term of the conclusion, second year in residence, each student must complete the coursework requirement, prepare a candidacy report, and pass an oral candidacy exam.

The report should be brief, describing research progress to date and outlining plans for the remaining doctoral research. The candidacy report should be submitted to the committee members one week before the oral exam. The committee must be composed of three faculty, plus the adviser(s), including a minimum of two Bioengineering faculty. Submit For Money! The oral candidacy exam will include presentation of research progress, presentation of a proposed outline for the thesis, and questioning on fundamentals related to the research area. Students that complete the coursework requirement, prepare a candidacy report, and pass the oral candidacy exam will be recommended for candidacy. Bernard Origins! Students that are not admitted to candidacy by the end of the second year in residence will not be permitted to register in subsequent terms except with special permission from the option representative. A final oral examination will be given after the for money, thesis has been formally completed.

The exam will consist of a public research presentation followed by a private defense with an exam committee. The committee must be composed of three faculty, plus the adviser(s), including a minimum of abstract two Bioengineering faculty. The thesis examination will be a defense of the doctoral thesis and submit essays, a test of the candidate’s knowledge in his or her specialized field of research.

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Grad Student Survival Guide in Math Sciences. This Graduate Student Survival Guide could have been titled, Something the (many) Authors Wish They Had When They First Started Grad School at Rensselaer. Submit! Though descriptive, that title was just too long. Nonetheless, in an uncommon act of benevolence, a group of interested graduate students formed the debate idea, mustered the energy, and submit essays for money, found the hockey conclusion time to bring together in essays for money, writing sound advice based on many years' experience. Alluded to in the questions in essays descriptive title is the purpose of this Guide.

Succinctly put, it is to pass along advice to incoming graduate students so that they might optimize their time in pursuit of a graduate degree from the Department of Mathematical Sciences at Rensselaer. The reader is alerted to the fact that this Guide is based on essays for money a collection of individual experiences. Therefore, it is in literature left to the reader to essays, decide whether or not the advice is worth implementing. Hockey! (We wouldn't be assuming this time-consuming task if we didn't consider the advice worthwhile, but the caveat emptor needs to be stated.) So, let us begin by extending our congratulations to you for being accepted into the graduate program. We sincerely hope that you will find your experience at Rensselaer to be a rewarding one.

We also sincerely hope that you will find this Guide useful in the pursuit of your degree. All Math grads must be aware of the course requirements for essays for money, the degree they seek. This information can be found at fellowship, You should read this and be very familiar with it. It is your responsibility to make sure you meet these requirements. Failure to submit essays, do so will delay your graduation! You should discuss these requirements with your academic advisor to be sure that you understand them fully. Here are some additional notes for you on a few of the requirements: 2.1 Doctoral Students. 1. Use Rhetorical Questions In Essays! If you plan on getting an M.S. along the way to your Ph.D., you must fulfill all of the M.S. requirements, including the Masters' Practicum. Submit Essays! (See below for more information on the practicum.)

2. If you plan on transferring in credits or using work you have done elsewhere (see part D of your requirements) to hockey essay, cover any of the other requirements, you must contact the for money Graduate Committee for approval in writing, and you should discuss it with your academic advisor. 3. Hockey Essay Conclusion! The 30 credit maximum for research is a fixed upperbound, but if you are finding the submit essays official course offerings to be limiting, consider taking readings courses. 4. The institute requirement regarding the number of 400-level credits you can use toward your degree can be confusing. And A Research! Perhaps the easiest way to determine the submit essays number of 400-level credits is from this simple rule: min (21 credits, 1/3 of total course credits). Because there might be some confusion, we provide a few examples which should help to clarify the rules. If you take 90 credits and the maximum of 30 research credits (note: research credits are different from reading courses - reading courses are counted as course credits) then you would need 60 course credits. Abstract In Literature! You could have at most 20 of those course credits at essays for money, 400-level. If you take 90 credits of which 15 are research credits, you would need 75 course credits, but only 21 of them can be at the 400-level.

5. Rhodes Fellowship Essay! If the department is paying for your credits, it will not pay for submit, more than the 90 credits required. So, you should attempt to meet all the requirements by bernard bailyn ideological origins american, the time you reach 90 credits. Then you should register for degree completion to keep your active status. See the section Money saving Hints for information about submit essays, how to ideological american, stay full-time after reaching your 90 credits. 6. Submit! A Master's Practicum is considered a course that can be applied toward fulfilling Ph.D. course requirements. 2.2 Masters Students.

1. The first thing you should note about your requirements is that we have two M.S programs here at Rensselaer. An Article And A Research! Make sure your courses match the program you wish to be in! 2. The second thing to for money, note is the Master's Practicum. You cannot graduate without it as this requirement is in literature dictated by New York State. There are many ways to fulfill this requirement. Perhaps the simplest way would be by attending the Workshop on Mathematical Problems in Industry (MPI). This event is held every year in May or June on the Rensselaer campus. (See Preparing for a Job in essays for money, Industry for more information on this workshop). Can We Use Rhetorical In Essays! Other ways to for money, fulfill this requirement can be found in the requirements document. See . Your academic advisor should have an idea of the types of rhodes practica that satisfy institutional/state requirements. For Money! But, as this is a new requirement, students should expect that the abstract in literature master's practicum is going to evolve over time, so students and faculty will have to adapt to submit essays for money, the changes as they occur. So, the conclusion best bet is to discuss your Practicum with your academic advisor, and submit essays for money, send a memo to the Graduate Committee for its approval in writing just to be safe.

Also, make sure it is listed on your plan of study even if you are not receiving Rensselaer credits. All graduate students in can we use rhetorical questions in essays, the Ph.D. program have a set of exams they are required to pass. Essays For Money! Understanding these exams and the by which they must be completed is the difference and a responsibility of the student. Masters' students who switch into submit for money the Ph.D. program will also have to complete these exams, but the timing is a bit different. The full explanation of both cases can be found at bernard bailyn ideological origins, . These exams should be thought of as stepping stones in your doctoral education. Along with your class work, these exams should help the department assess your abilities to be successful in writing a thesis and obtaining a Ph.D. Submit! But most importantly, they give the bernard ideological student a way to check his/her progress. As you move from year to year and pass these different exams, you will have a concrete set of successes you can look back on which, together with your class work and research, build a solid doctoral education.

3.1 Preparation for the Exams. Note: You should be familiar with the Doctoral exam document before you read this section. 3.1.1 Preliminary Exam. The purpose of the examination is to assess the qualifications of students in critical areas of undergraduate mathematics. The exam consists of 12 questions, about essays, one-third from linear algebra and between paper, about two-thirds from basic calculus. Students will have to choose 10 questions to be graded. The duration of the test will be four hours.

The level of difficulty of questions is very close to essays, the level of the rhodes essay standard GRE mathematics test. Submit Essays For Money! The linear algebra and questions, calculus questions from GRE preparation books can serve as good practice questions for the test. The format of the test is different from the GRE test: there are no multiple choice questions. 1. Essays! Get copies of sample prelims so you know what to abstract, expect. These can be obtained from Dawnmarie Robens who is located in for money, AE301. 2. Mathematics GRE study guides can be purchased at places such as . 3. Check the Prelim home page for when the exam is scheduled. Hockey! If you plan on taking it, then sign-up with Dawnmarie. You have the option to not take it even if you sign up. However, you should let Dawnmarie know if you change your mind. 4. Practice all the good test taking techniques you have learned over the years.

Get a good night's sleep, eat well before the exam, review the material for several weeks prior to submit for money, the exam, find a study partner, obtain the notes from someone who successfully passed the exam, etc. 5.You can ask Dawnmarie which faculty comprise the exam writing committee. Feel free to contact them for helpful studying suggestions. (See the phone/office list in the appendix.) 3.1.2 Qualifying Exam. As you take graduate classes, you should keep in mind that you will have to pass a Qualifying Exam covering three classes of bernard your choosing.

Your selection might be based upon your aptitude for the subject matter, your relationship with the professors of the classes, and the course's relationship with your tentative research topic. By the end of your fourth semester, you should have a good idea which three classes you have taken (or soon will take) that you would like included in for money, your qualifying exam. Every semester you should discuss the tentative course list with your academic advisor. After choosing your three classes, you should set up a date and time that works for the examining committee and which meets the rhodes fellowship essay exam time frame requirement (see section 2.G of the exam requirements document). Submit Essays! Please note: you will want to rhodes essay, confirm that the professors you took the submit courses from will be on your examining committee. See part 2.C of the debate euthanasia exam requirements for rules pertaining to the situation when one of your chosen faculty members is unable to attend the examination. In any case, once you know the subjects and the examiners, you will want to begin stage two of your preparation for this exam. (Stage one being taking the course in the first place.) The obvious stage two prep will be reviewing your class notes, as well as finding more references on the subjects, acquiring books you didn't use in for money, class, etc., to ensure that you have a very good understanding of the material. Then talk to the people who will be on your examination committee, ask them for the things they think are the most important . Set up more than one meeting with each person if possible so you get more than one impression. Ask their opinions not only on the subject they taught you, but also on debate euthanasia essay the other subjects as well.

Don't forget, they will all be in the room with you and it is in your best interest to know as much as possible about what will be asked before you walk in. Similarly, it is in your best interest for these people to be confident of submit your knowledge before you walk in the room as well. Please Note: It is bernard ideological american NOT necessary to have found a thesis advisor before this exam, but you should be well acquainted with your academic advisor by this time. 3.1.3 Candidacy Exam. After you have found a thesis advisor and have begun probing a research topic, together you will form a thesis committee (the Institute requires at least four full-time tenure-track Rensselaer faculty members, and at essays for money, least one scientist or professor from outside the Math Sciences Department).

Once things have solidified to a point, you and your advisor will decide when it is time for your candidacy exam. This must occur before you complete 75 credit hours (Institute requirement). The candidacy is a presentation of the preliminary research work you have done and where you intend on going with it. Bernard Bailyn Ideological American! It is a time to gather feedback from your entire committee (it may be the only time they all gather in the same room until your thesis defense!). It should be viewed more as a presentation and request for feedback, but you can expect penetrating questions from essays your committee. If you feel that one of the above exams was not as fair as you would have hoped, then you should put your observations in writing as soon as possible. Discuss these observations with your advisor. If you remain unsatisfied after that discussion, you have the right to bring these concerns before the Graduate Committee. A formal appeal in bailyn ideological origins american, writing should be submitted to the Graduate Committee as soon as possible.

This process is in submit, place to provide checks and balances to the system. You should always discuss things with your advisor first (if possible), but you should not be afraid to use the system. Under certain rare circumstances, requirements may be delayed, waived, or changed. All appeals should be made in writing to the Graduate Committee. Prior discussion with your academic advisor is assumed. Appeals will be considered by the entire committee and decisions will be returned to the student in writing. Keep in mind these requirements were set up not to between paper, hinder you from gaining a good education, but to ensure that you obtain a quality degree in a timely fashion.

Your academic advisor is your first link to the Rensselaer Math Sciences Department. Advisors are usually assigned to incoming students based on the interests you expressed in your application. Your advisor has a wealth of knowledge that you need to tap into EARLY! Your education at Rensselaer should be tailored to suit your needs and your goals for your future. For Money! To do this your advisor must be aware of these needs and difference between an article and a paper, goals. Essays! You will need to meet with your advisor before every semester to register for courses. Do not simply pop in and get the signature; instead, make an euthanasia essay appointment and hold a discussion so you are both clear on your goals and can be sure that you are reaching them in a timely fashion.

Below is submit a list of suggested topics/questions you will want to consider discussing with your academic advisor. Rhodes! Some are questions the answers to which you should share with your advisor. Some are questions you may want to submit for money, ask your advisor. If you are a new student, you will want to be sure to get through this list and any other ideas of your own. Can We In Essays! (Current students, you may find this list to be helpful as well, as it may point out some topic you may have overlooked.) Also, many of these same topics should be discussed with your thesis advisor (when you get one). Essays! It is crucial that everyone important to your success here at Rensselaer be aware of your needs and goals so that you can obtain the best education possible! Your education goals: Are you headed for a Masters degree?

Is there any potential that you will want to pursue a Ph.D. at some point? Or vice versa? How easily can you obtain a Masters degree along the way? (This is a smart thing to do.) Your career goals: Are you hoping to get a job in Academia (teaching)? At what type of institution (High school, small college, university)? What percentage of the time do you want to spend doing research?

What percentage of the time do you want to spend teaching? Are you looking for essay, a job in industry? Do you have any idea what you would like to do in industry? Are you looking to for money, work in a research lab? Are you aware of the average salary ranges for your choice of career?

What other skills outside of mathematics will help you in abstract, such a job? (Programming, learning all about grant writing, education courses, technical writing. ) No exact career goals at the moment? What should you do to prepare for all of the above? Is that possible? What are the submit differences in preparation? Timing: Are you planning on being at Rensselaer over the summers? What time line do you see for yourself? (When do you want to graduate?) Is your plan reasonable? Are there any outside concerns (family, job) that should be taken into consideration when planning your time line? Are you a TA? Are you on a one year fellowship that may or may not be renewed the next year? Are you self funded?

These issues should be discussed before filling out bailyn origins american, a plan of study. See the for money section Paper Trail for more details on bailyn ideological origins american that document. Continued Department Support: You should also be sure to consider in your time line planning that the submit essays Department has guidelines for abstract, continuation of financial aid for doctoral students: Graduate students who receive full Teaching Assistantships from the Department should plan to submit, complete their doctoral programs within four or five years. Between An Article Research Paper! Student can expect that their TA support will continue through this period, provided that they continue to essays, make satisfactory progress toward their degree and they continue to bernard ideological origins, perform well in their teaching assignments. Satisfactory progress means completing courses, required examinations (preliminary, qualifying, and candidacy), selecting a research area, and making progress toward completing a thesis. Submit! If a student requires TA support beyond the fifth year, each situation will be considered individually. Your background: What mathematics have you taken? What is critical knowledge for the career goals you seek? What are the base classes that would round out your education? Where are you lacking? Are there reasons you are lacking in certain areas? (Maybe you just didn't like that subject, or never saw a need for that subject, or past schools didn't offer that subject).

Are you prepared to jump right into fellowship essay all graduate classes? What prep should you be doing on your own to better succeed in the classes for submit essays, which you are registering? Are there any undergraduate classes you should take that would help round out essay, your education or prepare you for grad classes or exams to submit essays for money, come? What books should you be familiar with? Have you done any independent work (on a job or on essay your own time) which is not reflected in your transcript? (Are you a proficient programmer with no programming classes, have you written any papers? Done any previous research?) Are there outside area interests that could be worked into your education? What classes should you take? You should read the course catalog and the semester's class offerings, and come up with a list of classes that interest you. With your advisor you should determine if these classes also help you in submit essays for money, reaching your education and career goals, help you in bailyn ideological origins, preparing for submit essays for money, your exams (for Ph.D. students), help you meet the department requirements, etc. TAs also need to take into account the amount of time they need to dedicate to that job. Also, (for returning students) are you in bailyn ideological origins american, compliance with your plan of study?

If not, re-file it. Beware of that pesky 400-level course maximum! Determine scheduling to meet the degree requirements (Ph.D. Submit Essays! students): Doctoral students must adhere to the time line set out by the exam requirements. You should discuss these with your advisor and determine how and when you fulfill them. See Section on doctoral exam requirements for essay, more information) Other than classes, what should be done to prepare you for for money, your eventual job search? Who in hockey essay conclusion, the department has worked at other universities? Who has worked in industrial jobs? Where have recent graduate students gotten jobs? (See the department Home pages!) How did they do it? How can you meet these people and submit essays for money, start setting up a network of can we questions in essays contacts so that your job search runs as smoothly as possible? How about a summer internship?

The Career Development Center here on Campus has some information on employers but is not a good enough resource for the whole job search process. If your advisor is not familiar with your future career choice, is there anyone in the department who is? (Not only professors, but current grad students and graduates, too.) If your advisor doesn't know, who might? Find out, talk to them and be prepared early. Finding the submit for money right thesis advisor is critical to your survival and completion of your graduate degree. Conclusion! When you first arrive at Rensselaer, some of you may know exactly the area in which you would like to do research. Essays! However, many new graduate students do not. Therefore, it is essential for all graduate students to between and a research paper, get to know the faculty. Meet the Faculty Colloquium: Once a year, in the fall, there is a colloquium specifically designed for the graduate students to learn what the submit for money faculty members do in research. Most professors give brief talks on their current research projects as well as what their students have worked on hockey essay or are working on.

As a graduate student without a research advisor, you will definitely want to attend this colloquium. It is essays also a good opportunity for all graduate students to learn what fellow students are working on. You may be surprised, and your interest will be piqued. Take courses from professors in your research area: If you have an abstract in literature idea of which area you would like to do research, take classes from professors who are also interested in submit essays for money, that area (if they are teaching any) or ask them about a reading course. Make an appointment: It is abstract in literature important that as a new graduate student you meet the faculty. And, unless you have a professor in a class or are their TA, you may not have the occasion to submit essays, get to know your professors. Set up an appointment to meet them to just talk. Attend Office Hours: One of the best and most convenient methods of getting to know the professors is by attending their office hours.

This is debate euthanasia essay a time that the professor has reserved to spend time with the students, i.e. you. Essays! So take advantage of their availability and attention. Start attending office hours early in the semester to avoid an euthanasia exam rush. Familiarity with Future Plans, Who They Know: Choosing the right advisor extends beyond selecting someone with a topic of for money interest to you. Hockey Essay! It is best if you can choose someone that supports you in your future plans. That is, whatever your future goals are, does this person have the right contacts to help you get started in this particular direction?

Has this person had other students go in the direction you wish to go? You should discuss your plans with your prospective advisor. Working Styles: Another important aspect to selecting the right advisor is finding someone whose personality and working style complement yours. This can be difficult to determine, and it is usually after you have begun working with someone that you can determine the fit. You may be able to get an impression of their working style through the courses you have taken with them. How a professor answers your questions can give you some indication of how their thought process works and of what their work ethic is. Additionally, you may get some indication of his/her working style through discussions with current graduate students. Talk to current and past students: Whether or not it is deserved, most advisors get either a good or bad reputation.

It can prove useful for you to talk to current and former students of your prospective advisor to submit, learn what really can be expected. Be advised that the rhodes fellowship essay reputations might be out-dated or completely wrong. So check things out. Get involved. Great! Now you have your thesis advisor. Keep communications open. This will help to submit, make the euthanasia essay experience a positive one. You will need to set goals, communicate expectations, and establish a timetable for completion. This will alleviate any hard feelings or misunderstandings later on.

Be sure to be clear about your expectations and goals. It is important that you and your advisor are in agreement about the progression of your education and its completion. The following are questions and ideas that you should consider discussing with your thesis advisor. Coursework: What additional coursework would your advisor recommend you take to better prepare you for research? What courses interest you?

How should you best complete the course requirements? (see Section 2 Course Requirements) Should you finish all of essays for money your coursework as soon as possible, or is it better to take one or two courses each semester? Papers: Does your advisor expect you to publish your research? Is there a certain quantity of publications that is required by your advisor? Do you want to between, publish while you are here at Rensselaer? (see Preparing for a Job in submit essays, Academia and Preparing for a Job in Industry) Presentations: Will your advisor send (or bring) you to a conference to present your research?

Does your advisor have connections at can we use rhetorical questions, other local colleges where you could give presentations on your research? Meetings: How often does your advisor plan to meet with you? Will she/he set up a fixed time each week? Will there be a set of objectives between each meeting to be accomplished? Candidacy and Thesis Timing: When does your advisor expect you will be ready to take your candidacy exam and defend your thesis?

By what date would you like to have defended your thesis? Thesis Committee: After you've worked a while you can discuss with your advisor who to put on your thesis committee. This is something you probably will have an submit idea of can we as you take courses and look for potential thesis advisors. It is beneficial for you and your advisor to agree to the members of your thesis committee. See Section 5, Things to for money, Discuss with your Academic Advisor.

Many of the same questions will pertain to your academic advisor and your thesis advisor. Not all mathematics fits with all industrial jobs. People in industry often think there is can we use rhetorical in essays no practical value to submit essays for money, higher mathematics. And they often do not appreciate the complexities that can blossom from a simple problem. So, being a proficient mathematician will not guarantee you a job in industry. So what can you do while at between an article and a paper, Rensselaer to make your life easier when you are ready to leave? Technical writing: No matter what you do in industry, you are going to have to document it somehow, whether it be in technical papers, comments in your code or user documentation. Thus, solid technical writing skills are a must. Rensselaer offers a few technical writing classes for for money, those who want to euthanasia essay, hone these skills (and if you take a 600-level class, it even fulfills the outside area class requirement!). Trade journals and Conferences: Do you have any idea what a mathematician does in industry?

Do you have any idea what the practical problems are out there facing these mathematicians? Knowledge of this will help you pick your classes, focus on a particular job field, maybe even find a research project. There is a variety of submit essays for money trade journals out there which will expose you not only to american, the problems in submit essays for money, mathematics, but will help you to understand your field of choice as a whole. Each field has its own vocabulary that you should be familiar with before trying to get a job there. If you don't know where to start, try the mathematics journals and see what they talk about. Ask your advisor what journals are decent and ask your fellow grad students what they read. Don't be afraid of non-math trade journals either. Use Rhetorical Questions In Essays! Some of them are quite easy to read since they are non-academic. What conferences are good and why? How about submit, a non-mathematics conference, (such as the flashy SIGGRAPH, or Unix Expo (which is conveniently located in NYC usually each Fall))?

Or for real convenience and great exposure to industrial problems, how about the Workshop on Mathematical Problems in Industry (MPI) here at can we questions, Rensselaer each May/June? Or check the Internet for submit for money, a wide variety of conference listings, and watch the and a research paper department bulletin boards too. (Another great way to spend your summer!) Computer skills: The computer age is upon us in full force, and it is now pretty rare when mathematics is submit essays done solely by questions, pen and paper. Can you program? Can you get yourself around a PC and a Workstation? Can you edit a file on a PC and on a UNIX workstation? What programming languages are hot in the field you are interested in? What applications (i.e. Essays For Money! software) are necessary tools of the trade? What skills are employers listing in can we use rhetorical in essays, your field? Do you have them? (Another great way to spend a summer!!)

Publishing Papers: Although this is not as critical as it is for for money, Academia, having a few published papers to essay, list on your resume will give the prospective employer something concrete to read when trying to for money, assess your mathematical skills. Presentation at can we in essays, a Conference: It is important for essays for money, you to become comfortable presenting your work to others, fielding questions and handling spontaneous requests. In industry you will very likely be called upon to bernard bailyn ideological origins american, discuss the work you are doing, either to management, co-workers, or in a briefing to customers. Whether it be a talk to your fellow grad students, or a presentation at essays for money, a conference, the more you present your work, the more comfortable you will be with that process. You will get the obvious benefits of additional feedback on your work, perhaps insights you had not yet seen as well as appreciation for your efforts. But, you also have the option of requesting feedback from abstract you advisor or someone you trust in the audience, not only on the content of your talk, but on your presentation style. TA-ing: Yes, even this will help your resume for industry. You can use this as a way to show an employer you have people skills, the ability to break a difficult problem down to the point where it can be understood, that you know how to multi-task (you were TA-ing and submit for money, taking classes. ) Collaborative Research and other group work: It is rhodes fellowship essay very important that you show you can work alone as well as in a group when you are searching for a job in essays, industry.

Most work in industry is a team effort with each person playing an independent part in the final product. Questions! Demonstrating that you can work in such an environment, that you picked up slack when necessary, that you could lead as well as follow, etc., are all valuable skills. Submit Essays! Look into hockey conclusion working with a post-doc or someone other than your advisor on essays a short term project. Workshop on Mathematical Problems in Industry (MPI): The MPI workshop is a week-long work event held annually in May or June in which representatives from industry bring problems of interest to their companies. The problems are presented on the first day. For the rest of the week, the essay academic and industrial participants discuss the problems in for money, small, informal working groups.

Summary reports on the week's progress is made on the last day. The workshop is a rich environment for and a research paper, learning and students gain exposure to industrial relevant `real world problems, mathematical modeling, methods of solution, etc. Every grad student should consider attending at least one workshop (not just to hear the problems on the first day but to spend time during the week when the problems get sorted out). Submit Essays! It is a good learning experience even if the student doesn't feel that his/her background is bernard strong enough to participate much. You will be seeing/ working on actual problems from essays for money industry, see what they face, and how such problems are solved. Then someday, once you are out there in industry you will bring a problem of rhodes your own to this workshop! C olloquia: For information on the Math department Colloquia refer to Section on Preparing for a Job in essays for money, Academia. Bernard Ideological American! Much of essays for money that also applies to rhodes fellowship, industrial jobs. But for submit for money, someone wishing to work in rhodes essay, industry you should also consider attending colloquia in other departments. Here you can learn their language and be exposed to the problems they face and essays, you can start to picture your role working along side these people in industry.

It will also help to broaden your background, as well as provide you with another mechanism to make contacts outside the Math department. The Computer Science department Colloquia are a convenient place to start. It has been found that their colloquia can be quite understandable to non-Computer Science majors. Be adventurous!! Course work outside the difference and a research department: When you take classes outside the submit essays department, you have the opportunity to learn a subject where you can apply your mathematics. But more than that, you will also be gaining exposure and difference between an article and a paper, understanding of the essays for money methods and techniques employed in these other fields. You may find their approach to be very different than what you are accustomed to essay, in your math classes. However, it is quite likely that in industry you will be working with non-math people. Knowing how these people think and approach a problem should help you to be more successful when you work with them. As with the submit essays for money outside area colloquia, taking non-mathematics courses also gives you a prime opportunity to expand you personal contacts. Industry jobs are very appealing to some people.

The pace is often quick, there is use rhetorical questions in essays immediate feedback on your work from fellow employees as well as customers, and the pay is generally good. Often the mathematician must convince the submit essays for money employer that although they did not advertise for euthanasia, a mathematician, you are, in fact, the best for the job. Submit Essays For Money! Often, you need to focus on skills you have learned beyond the mathematical details. We are proficient in breaking down problems into manageable bits. We have been trained to spot variables that have little impact on the final result, we are comfortable attacking a problem, discovering it is infeasible and bailyn ideological american, backtracking to essays, a point where we can attempt to progress again, etc. Remember, job advertisements are often written by people in personnel and they are NOT educated in our field.

Often we need to educate them in why we should be hired (and paid well!) A few industry benefits: (All of these are in general and may not apply in all job situations) Variety of responsibilities, well defined goals, fast pace, decent salary, chance for debate, lateral as well as vertical growth, exposure to other disciplines, exposure to other ways of thinking, your mathematics used by others (co-workers as well as customers), mathematicians tend to be few in number so they are often called upon to essays, educate co-workers and are often a prized commodity because they are comfortable with a subject so many people are frightened of! A few industry negatives: Compared to academia, your hours are much more restricted. Deadlines and customers often drive your work rather than quality, precision, or interest. More time is often spent programming or in meetings or dealing with customers than actually doing mathematics.

You can end up with a manager with no knowledge of mathematics and who thus does not accurately assess your work. The Search: Getting a job in bailyn ideological origins american, industry has changed in essays for money, the past few years. Can We Questions! In big cities such as NYC with the major Wall Street firms, it is often helpful if you get a head hunter to assist you in essays, the job search. Finding a good head hunter is a challenge in in literature, itself. Your best bet is to ask around (friends already working in that area or friends of essays for money friends or graduates of the department can be very helpful in this). The Internet is also now a hot place to find job postings. The career development center here on essay campus can also offer some help.

However, the CDC tends to play a passive role, simply providing a service between interested companies and students, and is primarily directed towards undergrads. Essays! Unlike a head hunter they do not seek jobs for you. Please note: You should never have to pay a head hunter. The good head hunters (now referred to as H.H.) get their pay from in literature companies, which is why it is good to have more than one H.H. Essays! Each tends to deal with a certain set of companies. The classic model is the H.H. Difference Research Paper! reviews your criteria and abilities, and reviews the list of known job openings. Then the essays H.H. calls the abstract company and convinces them to interview you.

Sometimes that is all the H.H. does. If you get hired then the company gives the submit essays H.H. a kick back. Sometimes the H.H. negotiates your salary for you too. It is to their benefit to get you the best salary so that they can brag about it to future customers. Often the company pays the H.H. not a flat fee, but an amount based on your initial salary. So, for example, you get offered $60,000, if you accept the abstract offer the H.H. makes $6,000 (not out of essays for money your salary, but from the hiring company).

So, it is of mutual benefit for you to get a great salary. Networking through people in difference an article paper, the department (professors and their friends and former students, other graduates, their friends, current graduates and their friends and so forth) can help you find out about job openings and get interviews. This process makes a lot of people uncomfortable, but it is becoming more and more of submit essays a common place thing. To avoid it means you are missing out on potentially great jobs. Your resume: You will need this. An Article Research! You will want a hard copy that you can mail to head hunters and prospective employers. Make sure it photocopies well! You should consider creating an on-line resume as well, one that on first glance looks very similar to for money, your hard copy but has links to more information. You can connect to other companies you've worked for, you can create links to any work you have on-line, you can create links to any papers you have available, etc. This way, they can access as much or as little information as they want on you. Include this web address on your hard copy resume.

List of references: When it comes time to provide a list of references, you should contact each person you want to put on this list and make sure they agree to it. Then you should talk a bit about why you want them on use rhetorical in essays the list, and you should mention what your goals are as well as some of the places you are applying. It is best to pick people not only submit essays, familiar with you and in literature, your work, but familiar in submit for money, some respect to the job you are seeking. If you can use someone who is abstract already an employee of the company, so much the better! Personal Contacts: All through your graduate school time you should be building and maintaining a list of contacts that you can call upon when you are in submit essays, the job market. People in the department are easy contacts, but do not limit yourself to only professors and grad students, talk to them about who they know and try to meet as many people as possible. You need to maintain and nurture this network the whole time you are in grad school and difference an article research, beyond. In recent years it has been particularly difficult getting a job in academia. In 1997 the job market seems to submit essays for money, have gotten slightly better.

Let's hope the job market keeps improving. Regardless, if you want to get a job in academia, then you should start preparing for hockey essay, this early in submit for money, your career at Rensselaer. Bernard Bailyn Ideological Origins! The following are a few suggestions on how to prepare for academia. Of course there are different types of jobs in academia. Submit Essays! Some with more research (large universities) and some with more teaching (smaller colleges), so stress the following depending on can we use rhetorical questions your future goals. Teach your own course: Many colleges want you to have experience in the classroom that involves developing your own lectures and exams. During the summer, there are several courses that are taught almost exclusively by grad students. Each spring a form is put in the grad students mailboxes inquiring if you are interested in teaching a summer course. You can select which course and session that you would prefer to teach. The department chair will make selections based on the requests made and the number of submit essays for money available courses. Between An Article Research! This can be competitive.

Requesting a summer teaching position does not at for money, all guarantee that you will get one. T.A. Hockey Conclusion! a variety of courses: The interactive courses are really hot and growing throughout the nation. All kinds of essays colleges are interested in starting these courses. Colleges like to hire Ph.D.'s that have been involved in essay, a new course and show interest in developing educational programs. Submit For Money! Experience with a variety of courses is important because you don't know what a future employer is going to difference research paper, want you to teach initially. Additionally, a well-rounded teaching resume gives you more depth. Publish: A research institution looks more favorably upon a candidate with publications or someone with a proven research background. Most schools (almost all) stress research to essays, some extent. Debate Euthanasia! So if you plan to find a job that is primarily teaching, these colleges will probably still want you to submit essays for money, do some research (or scholarship). Scholarship can be satisfied in many different ways depending on the school.

It doesn't necessarily have to be research, but more and bernard bailyn ideological american, more small colleges are expecting research from submit essays for money their new hires. Also many colleges will want to know how you can extend your research program into bernard ideological origins american research projects with the students and how you will use it in the classroom. If you can arrange to have an undergraduate student or a master's student do research with you, this can be a positive asset for your future in academia. By doing so, you will be demonstrating that you can distribute/extend your research successfully to others. Also you will show that you can work well with others (in this case as a leader). Give Talks: Give as many talks as you can. This includes conferences, grad student seminars, local colleges, your undergraduate college, or other colleges when you're at home, visiting friends, etc. Essays For Money! Get used to can we use rhetorical questions, giving talks. When you go to interviews you will have to give a talk or maybe two.

These talks will either be on research or perhaps teaching a class. Collaborative Research: You should work well with others and submit essays, should be able to extend your math across disciplines. These skills can be developed by hockey essay, combining research efforts with others. This can be with someone either at Rensselaer, someone your advisor knows, or a person you met at a conference, etc. Additionally, taking courses outside the submit department will extend your knowledge of how mathematics is used in other disciplines. Debate! Discuss with your advisor and other students which courses would be best for you. Essays For Money! Finally, by attending the summer workshop (see Things to do over hockey essay, the Summer) you will have the submit essays for money opportunity to both work with others within and out of mathematics while solving real-world problems using mathematics.

Go to Colloquia: (see Section on hockey conclusion Colloquia) The colloquia introduce you to the research of others and they can help you develop skills in talking with other mathematicians about their research. Meeting People - Go to Conferences: It is important to make contacts within your research community. Meet the submit for money speakers. Rhodes Essay! Go to submit essays, conferences every chance you can. Academic jobs have many positive attributes. Among the benefits, the opportunity to educate is one that many cannot resist. It is a satisfying task that can make you feel as if you have really accomplished something and made a difference in the lives of others. There are many benefits to choosing a job in bernard bailyn ideological origins, academia. By choosing your place of employment (small college vs. For Money! university), you elect how much of abstract in literature your job is research, how much is teaching, and how much is service. (Service includes advising students, committee work, etc. and varies depending on the department.) In general, the research area is yours to choose. Essays! The hours you are expected to hockey essay conclusion, work are generally more flexible than in industry and you will (probably) have your summers off.

Furthermore, you have the opportunity to get tenure which secures your employment. There are also some drawbacks to for money, jobs in academia. For starters, you will probably not get paid as much as if you were in industry. But your salary may be a nine month salary, and you can subsidize your summer pay by getting a grant or contracting work to industry. Keep in mind that teaching, committee work, advising, money hunting, and research tend to pull people in many directions - you'll have to like this kind of existence. If you have difficulty thinking up topics for euthanasia, research, then you may want to consider seeking employment at submit, a small college rather than at can we questions in essays, a research institution. Even though your summers are yours to do with what you may, a certain amount of research (scholarship) is often expected, and the summertime can be the most productive time (no classes to interrupt you). If you don't achieve the submit essays for money high standards to obtain tenure (publish or perish), then you will have to leave that school and essay, go elsewhere.

The following are some guidelines and references to aid in your job search process. Postdoc: If you are interested in submit essays for money, a position that stresses research as a large portion of your responsibilities, then you may want to consider applying for a postdoc position. It can be very difficult to be hired in a tenure track position at major research universities without any post graduate research experience. Timing: Advertisements for a position beginning in abstract in literature, the fall will start appearing during the summer (a year+$ in advance). Essays For Money! Generally most advertisements appear between October and January. You will need to have your documents of application ready as soon as possible, so as to avoid a rush when the time comes. You probably should start making your vita (see below) and other documents in August (a year before the can we in essays prospective job will begin). It will give you enough time to make changes and get your documents exactly the submit for money way you want them. This is something you should discuss with your thesis advisor and other grad students.

Curriculum Vitae: This is a fancy name for an academic resume. There are several help guides available on the web on how to construct your vita. One such location is at Ask a few people to allow you to take a look at their vitae. A lot of people have their vitae linked to their home page, so as you surf the web take note of the formats that you like and dislike and also the type of information that is included. Things to include are: research interests, educational background, relevant employment experiences, talks given, publications, any outstanding distinctions (awards, grants, etc.), courses taught, computer skills, etc. Make sure it is neat and well written. You may want to difference between an article and a paper, make an electronic version for your home page. The electronic version should look exactly like the hard copy of submit essays your vita, except that it will have links to essay, your publications, the schools you went to, the conference home pages, etc.

In the current job market, academic employers prefer receiving a hard copy of your resume. But having an electronic version available will demonstrate your proficiency with computers. Also, if the employer is submit for money inspired, she/he can easily learn more about the items you have linked to your resume. Other Documents: When you apply for a job in academics, you may be required to hockey, include a 1-2 page statement of for money research interests and/or a statement of teaching philosophy and career goals. One hint on the statement of research interests is bernard ideological origins that you could use your abstract of your thesis if this is already written and edit this as you see fit.

Just be prepared to compile these documents, and start them early, so you are not throwing together an application to meet a deadline. Other Things to Include in an Application: If you have any papers submitted for publication or which have been published, you may want to include copies of these papers in your application. They can choose whether they want to submit essays for money, read them or not, but at the very least they will probably read your abstracts. Many schools ask for transcripts. Rensselaer does not charge you for each transcript that is sent out, so it is to rhodes fellowship, your advantage to send along a transcript with each application regardless if the school has requested it or not. The AMS has a standard cover sheet that some schools request you send with your application. For Money! You can find information on and obtain a copy of this cover sheet in both the AMS newsletter (NOTICES of the AMS) and at the web page. Reference Letters: Most schools will request between 3 and in literature, 4 letters of recommendation with your application. Line up some professors that know you through research, TA-ing, or course work. Essays! Give these professors plenty of time to write your letter of recommendation.

It is most helpful if you can provide as much aid as possible to them because this will speed up their process. Rhodes! For example, you should give them prepared labels addressed to the places you are applying. Submit Essays! There is a Tex program (location TBD) that is set up to make labels. Also, ask them what else they could use that will make this job easier on them. Hockey Conclusion! Perhaps they will want the list of places e-mailed to them, perhaps even in a particular format to submit, accommodate their use of LaTeX, etc. Reference letters are very important, so make sure you get professors that will give you high praise. Additionally, if you have some previous work experience that is debate euthanasia essay relevant to your new employment, you may want to have your previous employer send a bonus letter of essays for money recommendation.

This letter would not necessarily count as the 3 or 4 requested by abstract, the future employer. Job Openings: Many colleges advertise in several newsletters, etc. The most common newsletters to find advertisements include Notices of the American Mathematical Society (AMS), FOCUS (The Newsletter of the Mathematical Association of America (MAA)), SIAM NEWS (Newsjournal of the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (SIAM)), and the Chronicle of Higher Education. Copies of each of these newsletters are often located in the coffee room. Another excellent source of job openings is the web. You may access the essays for money job listings for each of the debate essay above mentioned newsletters on the Internet. Some of these locations also have mailing lists that send any new advertisements directly to your email address. Addresses are: There are many more sites that list employment opportunities.

Ask around, look through any other newsletters you may receive such as Mechanical Engineering, ORMS Today, AWM, etc., and other sites relative to your research area. MAA/AMS Joint Meetings Conference: You may want to attend the national meetings of the MAA/AMS. If you are looking for a position that is primarily research, then you probably shouldn't attend because smaller colleges are generally looking for employees at this conference. They have an essays employment service where you can meet with many different schools that are hiring. Each interview is very brief (about 20 mins.), and meeting so many people can be overwhelming. But by meeting these people they are able to put faces with their applicants, and when they have many applicants, this advantage can go a long way. Network with Professors: Professors often get e-mails of can we job openings sent to them. Let all the professors know that you are looking for a job, and submit essays for money, ask them to please forward to you any information regarding openings.

Also, let the professors know what schools to which you may be applying. They may know someone at that school, and this connection can get you recognized above the hundreds of other applicants they may be considering. It is expected that each graduate student is an active learner, is interested in rhodes essay, the subject matter, can learn independently, and can complete the assignment at hand in the specified amount of time. In comparison to essays for money, undergraduate courses, graduate courses usually cover more material in a shorter time and in greater depth. In addition, homework assignments are generally longer and more involved. Therefore, it is a good idea to debate euthanasia essay, keep up with all assignments and text readings. Essays! As an undergraduate one may have been successful even though assignments were completed at the last minute. In graduate school this is almost impossible. As such, the following is a list of helpful hints to aid in hockey, one's academic success. Stay current with all text readings.

Readings of the text are very often not explicitly assigned by the instructor. It is the student's responsibility to be prepared for each class meeting. When a text is difficult to read, consult other related texts for submit, an alternative point of view. Review class notes weekly. Try to clarify difficult concepts covered during the week. Consult with other classmates, professors, or texts. Ask yourself core questions about the subject and find the solutions. Begin assignments and projects early. Multiple assignments are often due on the same day.

An early start allows one to essay, work on several tasks at once, and doing so facilitates bringing each to completion. Work in groups when permitted. Study groups are often encouraged by the instructor. Conversing with other members of the class generally increases your understanding of the subject matter. Submit Essays! However, solutions to hockey, problems should be written up individually. Understanding is important, so if you don't follow what your group has produced, don't breeze over it. Seek instructor assistance.

Office hours are posted for each faculty member. When you or your group cannot resolve a problem, take advantage of the instructor's office hours. Fill in gaps in knowledge. In learning a new subject, you may come to the realization that there are certain holes in your knowledge base. Submit For Money! Fill these holes on your own. If the essay holes are too big, consult a professor for assistance. Did you know that the department usually sponsors one or more weekly colloquia? Did you know that there are brown bag seminars held most Fridays?

Did you know that the graduate students have a bi-weekly colloquia? The weekly colloquia sponsored by submit for money, the math department bring in rhodes fellowship essay, speakers from all areas of mathematics of essays for money particular interest to the department's faculty. Therefore, the fellowship essay talks are typically directed at the faculty, and they tend to be complex, and submit for money, most graduate students find that they are able to follow the speaker for part of the talk (trust that you will never follow 100% of the talks). Rhodes! As the for money invited speakers are colleagues with our faculty members, the colloquia help to identify the fellowship essay interests of for money our faculty as well as current research issues in hockey essay, those fields of interest. Consequently, the colloquia can have a significant impact on your research, and they serve to round out your educational experience too. Furthermore, as you attend more of the talks, you will find that you can follow more and more of them, and for money, you will recognize the speakers' use of techniques that you have applied in class or might employ in future teaching experiences.

You will also get an essay idea of submit for money how to present your research, something in debate euthanasia, your not-too-distant future. Submit Essays For Money! You will find that it is exciting to see real applications of some of the math that looks like it could have no application at all - yet it does! The colloquia provide exposure to new technical words, and they provide a sense of excitement and relevance to the math you might be learning in euthanasia essay, class. The department often requests that the speaker give a talk directed at the graduate students - or two talks may be given where the first is for students and the second an extension of the for money first. Here is some advice for attending the colloquia. To begin with, a colloquium is can we questions not a class, so do not expect to understand all of the essays details of the talk. Your goals as an in essays audience member should be to (1) know what the problem the speaker wishes to solve, (2) know what methods/techniques are employed, and (3) know what conclusions are reached.

Graduate students should be aware that the overall attendance at the colloquia reflects upon the reputation of the Department of Mathematical Sciences to the invited speaker. As such, attendance should be considered nearly mandatory, defined to mean that you should plan on attending unless there is a good reason for not making it. (Of course, it is not possible to define that which constitutes a good reason, so use your best judgment. Be advised that there are members of the faculty who frown upon those students who do not attend colloquia.) And a commandment: thou shall always attend the DiPrima Lecture. Get a snack before the colloquia (good cookies, a grad student basic food group), and meet the speaker, fellow students, and other professors. Believe it or not, mathematicians can be very interesting people. Stop by and get to know them and their work. The brown bag seminars provide a more casual forum than the weekly colloquia. These seminars are held at noon, generally on essays Fridays. Often they are located in AE 402 which is much smaller and less formal (and, therefore, less intimidating) than the lecture hall where the colloquia are held (generally AE 214). A smaller number of people will probably attend a brown bag seminar than the colloquia, and bailyn, the speakers are typically from submit Rensselaer's faculty. The research presented here may be less polished than that of the colloquia, and abstract in literature, often feedback is given to the speakers on the topic presented, where the feedback takes the form of suggestions of essays what to do next, or what to look at, etc.

If you find yourself too shy or simply too intimidated to ask questions at a colloquium, perhaps attending a brown bag seminar would boost your confidence and essay, provide the right atmosphere for interaction with the speaker. The graduate student talks are a series of talks scheduled by graduate students and for money, given by use rhetorical questions in essays, graduate students on a volunteer basis. Essays! The speaker may choose to talk about any research or math topic he/she wishes. Previous speakers have given talks as a practice before doing the same presentation at a conference, some have presented talks that they plan to between an article and a paper, give at their candidacy exam, other have found interesting papers and presented them to the group (said papers having nothing to essays, do with their research). You do not have to have completed any research to bernard bailyn, participate in the graduate student seminars. This is your opportunity to submit for money, present mathematics to your peers without any interference from the abstract faculty. As a graduate student you are not required to for money, give a talk at the graduate student seminars, but you are encouraged to abstract in literature, give a talk at some point.

Communicating your research to others can be a challenge, but it is for money a skill that you will need to have. In Literature! These seminars will be good practice for the future. Do your best to attend as many seminars as you can so that you can get to for money, know the other grad students. Also you will learn what other students are doing for their research, something that can help in your selection of a research topic and research, advisor. Contact Phaedra Agius for essays, scheduling your talk. Her email address is

Information on Graduate Student and fellowship, Department Colloquia can be found at submit essays for money, the Department's web page. There are several academic and job related opportunities for graduate students to do over the summer. Can We Use Rhetorical! Depending upon one's individual goals, there are many opportunities available. In addition, the campus is quiet and provides a nice place to really get some work done! Academic Opportunities: -Completing course work. Take courses to fulfill department requirements. These courses may be inside or outside the department. Take a reading course in a subject that may not be normally offered within the submit for money department. -Preparing for Fall preliminary exams. See section 3.1.1.

-Research assistant at Rensselaer or another university. Faculty within the department may have summer funds to support a research assistant. Debate Euthanasia Essay! Exploit faculty contacts to obtain research assistance positions at locations other than at Rensselaer. Postings for other universities can be found on the fourth floor bulletin boards. Summer research work need not be related to intended thesis work. -Annual Workshop on Mathematical Problems in Industry. This workshop is held annually in the month of May or June at Rensselaer and essays, is free to graduate students. Can We Questions! This workshop can also satisfy a degree requirement. - Teaching in the Math Department.

Two sessions of courses are held over the summer, each about six weeks in length. Teaching positions are available during these sessions, and a flyer is for money usually distributed in April notifying graduate students of the need for summer instructors. This is a good opportunity for graduate students who are interested in teaching their own class. (See preparing for essay conclusion, a job in academia.) -Summer job. The Career Development Center located in the DCC has numerous information about job opportunities, and there are several on-site interviews for submit for money, people interested in summer employment. Their WWW address is:

Those interested in in essays, a summer job should begin looking no later than the month of February. Two good local sources with extensive summer co-op programs are IBM and GE. These jobs could be a good way to enhance your programming skills while getting paid. There are very specific requirements that are mandated by submit essays for money, the Graduate School when writing your thesis. Most students choose to in literature, write their thesis using LaTeX. However, as long as the requirements are met you can use any package that you prefer. For information on requirements for creating the document see: For the LaTeX files necessary to produce the thesis, see: Degree Completion: When you have completed your course requirements and your research hours are exhausted, you may register for submit essays, Degree Completion.

This is for the student who has completed the 60 or 90 credit requirement beyond the Bachelor's Degree, is currently not registered for rhodes essay, any credit hours, and is working on a thesis. Because degree completion has a course number and requires registration, you must file the appropriate forms. Submit Essays For Money! These forms may be obtained from Lorraine. Difference Between And A Paper! There is a $50 fee to register for degree completion. In addition, you must reapply each semester for which you are working on the completion of the degree. Essays! To maintain full-time status, certification must be obtained (see below). Full-time certification has tax implications.

To maintain a FICA-exempt status during the semester (FICA won't be deducted from your monthly stipend) requires that one maintain one's full-time status. Various forms will need to be completed periodically while you are a student at fellowship, Rensselaer. These include the plan of study, full-time certification, degree application, registering for submit, classes, registering for hockey, research credits, and other random forms that seem to appear in your mailbox. You should complete your plan of study soon after your arrival at Rensselaer. This form will contain a listing of all the essays for money coursework and research credits you anticipate completing towards your degree.

You will need to update your plan of study so that it remains current with your completed as well as proposed courses. The degree application is required early in bailyn ideological origins, the semester you plan to graduate. For those planning to submit, graduate in the summer, this form is due at the beginning of the first summer session. Check the academic calendar for in literature, specific deadlines. Each semester registration materials are mailed to your home or local address. Generally these arrive a few days before registration. Be sure to complete your registration by the deadline given, because otherwise you will be charged a late fee. Before registering, discuss with your advisor the courses you would like to take. When registering for research credits an for money additional form titled Thesis/Project Registration Form must be completed.

You can get this form from either Dawnmarie or from the essay registrar. Graduate Student offices: There are several graduate student offices located throughout the third and fourth floors of Amos Eaton. Submit For Money! Each office has its attractive features as well as its detractors, and some offices seem to have more of one than the other. Essay! Attractive features might include a telephone, one or more work stations, a chalk board, and/or an for money air conditioner. Abstract! Detractors might include the flow of undergraduates through the office in search of a TA. More than likely - and in for money, most cases, fortunately - you will not retain the same office for the duration of your time at Rensselaer since your progress will dictate the facilities that best suit your status. Because she is aware of the status of the department's graduate students, Lorraine will make arrangements for your office assignment. Be sure to let her know if you have any special needs which might affect that assignment. Computers: There are many work stations located throughout the third and bailyn ideological origins, fourth floors of essays for money Amos Eaton that are for the use of members of the Department of euthanasia Mathematical Sciences. Most offices have at essays, least one work station, and the Edwin Brown Allen Library located in essay, AE315 houses nine work stations. AE315 also has a laser printer which should be set as your default printer.

Feel free to add paper to the printer should the essays for money red light indicate that there is a need for some. Some Computer Room Protocol: All Rensselaer rules pertaining to computer use and etiquette apply to the Mathematics Department computers as well. You should take a moment to read them at the following address: In addition to the above, the Math department has some internal guidelines as well. 1. Debate Euthanasia! If you are going to be away from your computer for more than 15 minutes, log off.

Long running jobs should be submitted to NIC cluster. For Money! (For more information concerning NIC, see 2. Any time you leave your computer it is best to fellowship essay, lock the screen anyway. Submit For Money! To do this, use xlock or xscreensaver. 3. There is a phone in the Math Library (ext 2215). This phone is a lab phone, and it should not be used as a personal phone.

Do not give the number out to your students. Tell family and friends it should be used sparingly. If the phone rings while you are in there. answer it and take a message if it isn't for you (send it by e-mail!!). 4. Debate! Any one wishing to do work has priority over anyone using the computers for submit essays for money, entertainment. This includes surfing the web and playing games and can we use rhetorical, reading or writing personal e-mail.

If the room is full and someone walks in, you should offer to log off if they need to submit essays, work. Since the busy time for computer usage is between 10:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m., it is best to avoid entertainment use during this period. 5. If you just need to check mail or input grades, do not log into the machines located in the center of the room. Use the smaller, less powerful machines along the wall. In general these work quite well for bernard bailyn origins american, that type of computer work, leaving the larger machines free for more computer intensive work. 6. Submit! Obvious rules of fellowship essay cleanliness apply. Submit! Clean up after yourself, don't leave old cans and cups around, etc.

Please recycle all unwanted cover sheets, or, when printing from a Unix window, type lpr -h filename which prevents the printing of the cover sheet. 7. The laser printer's (ae315lw) basic upkeep is the responsibility of conclusion those who use it. This means we all must reload paper, check toner, etc. Extra paper and submit essays for money, extra toner cartridge can be found under the printer table. See Lois in the main office for instructions on changing the toner. Main office: The Department's main office is located in AE301. Fellowship Essay! Against one wall are the mailboxes of all department personnel. Check your box daily for important information or distribution. Submit Essays For Money! Also in the main office is the department's copier, which is housed in its own room - mainly to can we use rhetorical questions in essays, dampen the swearing and other noise. (Also, should the laser printer in AE315 need paper, reams of 8 1/2 x 11 paper can be found on the shelves in the copier room.) Because there is submit for money near certainty that you'll need to make a copy at some time during your time here, you'll need an access code. Ask your advisor for an access code, or the debate professor for essays for money, whom you TA, or ask someone in the main office.

If you need help in how to use the conclusion machine (ie. how does one make slides?), then ask for help. Also in the main office is the FAX machine (ph. 276-4824 for for money, incoming faxes). Although the instructions for its use are posted nearby, they might be confusing at debate, first. So, if you have a question about its use, ask the staff who will be happy to help you out.

There is also another laser printer in the main office which can be accessed only during the hours of the main office (which is why the essays one in AE315 is recommended as your default printer). Please keep in mind always that the main office is can we use rhetorical in essays where several people work, and essays for money, they should be afforded proper courtesy and can we use rhetorical questions in essays, respect. Coffee room: Located on the east end of the fourth floor is the submit essays for money Department's coffee room. Feel free to use this room and its facilities (which include a microwave oven, a refrigerator for short-term storage, and a coffee machine - of all things). This is the debate euthanasia location of the pre-colloquium gathering where the submit for money cookies and other important items are served. The coffee room is air-conditioned in abstract, the summer months, making it an submit attractive place for those whose offices are not. The coffee room also makes for a nice place to share a lunch with some friends. AE315: In addition to between an article and a, the aforementioned work stations, AE315 also houses a collection of mathematical works. The card catalog on the shelves by the door house the details of the collection.

The sign-out forms for the books are located by the card catalog. The use of the library books is on an honor system. The facilities: The restrooms are located on submit essays the east end of Amos Eaton. Euthanasia! For the submit for money women, the facilities are on ideological the first and third floor; for essays, the men, the second or fourth floors. 19.1 Who to talk to for more information and help. Graduate Student Coordinator. Dawnmarie Robens is the Graduate Student Coordinator in the Math Sciences Department. She can answer questions pertaining to funding, teaching, degree requirements, or anything else that comes to mind.

If she does not know the answer to bailyn ideological origins american, your question, she will find someone for you. Dawnmarie is a wonderful person, get to know her right away! She will be your best friend throughout your career at Rensselaer. 19.2 Reserving Rooms If you ever need to reserve a room, say for a review session you are holding as a TA, or for a special talk you are giving, if you are looking for a room outside of Amos Eaton 4th floor, you should call Rensselaer's room scheduler, Michael Conroy, at ext. 6655. For Amos Eaton 4th Floor rooms, contact Melissa. Some helpful hints: To schedule a room, call Michael Conroy in submit essays for money, the Registrar's office, x6655, or e-mail her at american, To request equipment like overhead projectors or an xstation and LCD panel, call Media Operations, x8282, or e-mail them at

Check with the main office about essays for money, certain office supplies, like overhead markers or overhead slides. Know where to refer a student if he or she is abstract in literature having personal problems: Dean of Students x6266, Counseling Center x6479, Chaplains x6518, Advising and Leanring Assistance Office x6269, or his or her academic advisor. Know where to refer a student for tutoring (The Learning Center, x6269) or if he or she is for money having academic difficulty. Pay days are bi-weekly on Fridays, and checks can be deposited directly to your bank account or picked up in the Union on bernard ideological origins pay days. Be sure to submit full-time certification forms as soon as possible at the start of a semester to maintain your student FICA-exempt status. Take advantage of for money older T.A.s; if you've got a problem (course workload, MAPLE, etc), chances are they've gone through a similar situation and may be able to help. T.A.s are human, too! Take time to step back from school life and decompress every now and then.

It's okay. Prepare for class. Do the homework problems and the labs in advance. Distribute a list of essay conclusion your policies, approved by the professor, so students will have your expectations in writing. Devise a fair strategy for handling complaints about grades. For example, set a policy that complaints must be submitted in writing and/or filed within one week of getting the work back. Fairness - and the students' perception of fairness - are important. The TA needs to be consistent. Keep in close contact with the submit for money professor about lecture contents, due dates, and other administrative or logistical items. Treat students with respect. Be prepared not to know all the answers.

Be willing to say, I'm not sure about that. Bernard American! Let me think about it and get back to essays for money, you. Then make yourself a note and do so. Learn students' names. Doing so will help to earn their respect. If you experience computer problems during a lab, report them to x-7777. Always bring overhead markers to lab. Often, pens are either missing or they are dried out.

Encourage students to come to abstract, office hours. Do this often. A good source of info for International Students (visas, taxes, etc.) is the submit essays for money Office of use rhetorical questions in essays International Students located in the Troy building. They even organize tax seminars. They have a web site and submit for money, every international student is difference an article and a research automatically signed up into submit their list server.

Some things to remember: Who to talk to: The person in charge of the Office of International Students is Jane Havis, and hockey conclusion, we hear she knows her stuff very well. Essays For Money! If you ever have a question about Visa status, summer jobs, co-ops, employment authorization, etc., call her for an appointment. Full-time status: It is very important that international students make sure that they are registered full-time every semester. Otherwise it can mess up their status and the correction of this is abstract in literature not a trivial matter. Leaving the U.S: The I-20 forms need to be signed by Jane Havis each time you leave the country. You should allow one month's time for the processing of for money this form. Keeping your I-20 Valid: It is critical for conclusion, your I-20 to be valid in order for you to remain in the United States. If it is essays for money going to expire, then it needs to abstract, be renewed. Apply for renewal one month before it expires.

When and How to File Taxes: You must file a tax form every year in for money, the United States if you earn income here. You will start to receive forms from the government and your employer after January 1. You must file the tax forms no later then April 15. Essay! If you have any questions (what constitutes income, how to fill out the submit essays for money forms, where to get them, etc.), contact the Office of International Students and ask about their tax seminars.

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American Military Strategy in the Vietnam War, 1965–1973. For nearly a decade, American combat soldiers fought in South Vietnam to help sustain an independent, noncommunist nation in submit for money Southeast Asia. After U.S. troops departed in 1973, the collapse of hockey essay South Vietnam in submit for money 1975 prompted a lasting search to explain the bernard ideological origins, United States’ first lost war. Historians of the submit essays for money, conflict and participants alike have since critiqued the ways in which civilian policymakers and uniformed leaders applied—some argued misapplied—military power that led to such an undesirable political outcome. Bailyn? While some claimed U.S. Submit Essays For Money? politicians failed to commit their nation’s full military might to difference paper, a limited war, others contended that most officers fundamentally misunderstood the nature of the war they were fighting.

Still others argued “winning” was essentially impossible given the submit for money, true nature of a struggle over Vietnamese national identity in the postcolonial era. On their own, none of these arguments fully satisfy. Contemporary policymakers clearly understood the difficulties of waging a war in Southeast Asia against an enemy committed to national liberation. Yet the faith of these Americans in their power to essay, resolve deep-seated local and regional sociopolitical problems eclipsed the possibility there might be limits to that power. By asking military strategists to simultaneously fight a war and build a nation, senior U.S. policymakers had asked too much of submit essays those crafting military strategy to deliver on use rhetorical questions overly ambitious political objectives. In the end, the Vietnam War exposed the limits of essays what American military power could achieve in the Cold War era. By mid-June 1951, the Korean War had settled into an uneasy, yet conspicuous stalemate. Having blunted North Korean and Chinese offensives that killed thousands of soldiers and civilians, the United Nations forces, now under command of General Matthew B. Ridgway, dug in as both sides agreed to open negotiations. Though the enemy had suffered heavily under the rhodes, weight of allied ground and air power, Washington and for money, its partners had little stomach to press northward. As the U.S.

Joint Chiefs of Staff declared, the objective was to effect “an end to the fighting . . Abstract? . and submit, a return to the status quo.” 1 Thus, President Harry Truman’s decision in April to relieve General Douglas MacArthur—who in Ridgway’s words “envisaged no less than the global defeat of communism”—suggested that political limitations were now an intrinsic part of developing and implementing strategy in a time of war. Yet what was the in essays, purpose of war and submit essays for money, strategy if not the complete destruction of enemy forces? In a time when men had “control of machines capable of laying a world to waste,” Ridgway believed escalation without restraint would lead to abstract, disaster. Submit For Money? Civilian and military authorities had to set attainable goals and work closely in selecting the means to achieve them. 2. Debate Essay? Ridgway’s admonitions forecast inherent problems in a Cold War period increasingly dubbed an era of submit for money “limited war.” In short, the can we use rhetorical questions, very definition of wartime victory seemed in flux. An uncertain end to the fighting in Korea implied there were, in fact, substitutes to winning outright on the field of essays battle. Even if Korea demonstrated the bailyn american, successful application of communist containment, at least one student of strategy lamented that limited war connoted “a deliberate hobbling of tremendous power.” 3 A Manichean view of the Cold War, however, presented knotty problems for those seeking to confront seemingly expansion-minded communists without unintentionally escalating beyond some nuclear threshold. How could one fight a national war for survival against communism yet agree to negotiate an end to a stalemated war? Political scientist Robert Osgood, writing in essays 1957, judged there were few alternatives to contesting communists who themselves were limiting military force to “minimize the risk of precipitating total war.” For Osgood, the challenge was to think about contemporary war as more than simply a physical contest between opposing armies. “The problem of limited war is not just a problem of military strategy but is, more broadly, the problem of combining military power with diplomacy and with the bernard ideological, economic and psychological instruments of power within a coherent national strategy that is capable of supporting the United States’ political objectives abroad.” 4. If Osgood was correct in suggesting that war required more than just an application of military power, then strategy—as a problem to be solved—entailed more than just battlefield expertise. Thus, the post–World War II generation of U.S.

Army officers was forced to think about war more broadly. And they did. Far from submit essays being slaves to conventional operations, officers ascending the ranks in the 1950s to command in euthanasia Vietnam understood the rising importance of local insurgency movements. As Andrew Birtle has persuasively argued, by 1965 the army had “succeeded in integrating counterinsurgency and counterguerrilla warfare in substantive ways into its doctrinal, educational, and training systems.” 5 An examination of contemporary professional journals such as Military Review reveals a military establishment wrestling with the submit essays, problems of local economic and social development, the importance of community politics, and abstract, the role played by indigenous security forces. In truth, officers of the day, echoing the recommendations of essays Harvard professor Henry Kissinger, did not define limited wars in purely military terms. Rather, they perceived strategic problems as those involving changes in technologies, societies, and, perhaps most importantly, political ideas. 6. These same officers labored to devise a coherent strategy for a limited contest in Southeast Asia within the larger construct of the Cold War. Rhodes Essay? In an important sense, the development of strategy for all combatants necessitated attention to multiple layers, all interlaced. As Lyndon Johnson recalled of Vietnam in his 1971 memoir, “It was a political war, an economic war, and a fighting war—all at the same time.” 7 Moreover, American political and military leaders found that Cold War calculations mattered just as much as the fighting inside South Vietnam. Fears of appearing weak against submit essays for money, communism compelled the Johnson White House to escalate in 1965 when it looked like Hanoi was making its final bid for Indochinese domination. As Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara told a journalist in April, if the United States withdrew from Vietnam “there would be a complete shift of world power.

Asia goes Red, our prestige and integrity damaged, allies everywhere shaken.” Thus, paraphrasing military theorist Basil Liddell Hart, policy imperatives at the level of debate grand strategy would set the submit essays, foundations for—and later circumscribe—the application of abstract in literature military strategy on a lower plane. 8. Liddell Hart’s council that strategy involved more than “fighting power” would lead American officers in Vietnam into a near insolvable dilemma. Submit For Money? Clearly, the civil war inside Vietnam was more than just a military problem. Yet in the quest to broaden their conception of war, to consider political and social issues as much as military ones, senior leaders developed a strategy that was so wide-ranging as to be unmanageable. Rather than a narrow focus on enemy attrition, sheer comprehensiveness proved to be a crucial factor undermining American strategy in Vietnam. In attempting to both destroy an adversary and build a nation, uniformed leaders overestimated their capacity to manage a conflict that had long preceded American involvement. A near unquestioning faith in the capacity to do everything overshadowed any unease with entanglement in a civil war rooted in hockey essay conclusion competing notions of national liberation and identity. 9 In the end, senior U.S. policymakers had asked too much of those crafting military strategy to essays, deliver on overly ambitious political objectives. Devising Strategy for a New Kind of hockey conclusion War. By June 1965, General William C. Westmoreland had been serving in the Republic of Vietnam for eighteen months.

As the newly appointed commander of the U.S. Military Assistance Command, Vietnam (MACV), the submit for money, former West Point superintendent was heir to and a research, a legacy of varied strategic initiatives aimed at sustaining an essays for money, independent, noncommunist foothold in an article and a paper Southeast Asia. Essays For Money? Since the division of Vietnam along the seventeenth parallel in 1954, an hockey conclusion, American military assistance and essays, advisory group (MAAG) had been training local forces for a threat both externally military and rhodes fellowship, internally political. 10 The image of North Korean forces streaming across an international boundary in 1950 surely weighed heavily on U.S. Submit Essays? officers. Yet these same men understood the importance of an article and a research paper a steady economy and secure social structure in combating the growing insurgent threat inside South Vietnam. Consequently, the U.S. advisory group focused on submit essays for money more than just advising the Army of the Republic of South Vietnam (ARVN) for conventional operations against the North Vietnam Army (NVA). 11. As advisers, however, the Americans could not dictate strategy to their Vietnamese allies. Rhodes Fellowship? President Ngo Dinh Diem, struggling to gain popular support for his own social revolution, equally sought ways to secure the population—through programs like agrovilles and strategic hamlets—from a rising communist insurgency. Yet achieving consensus with (and between) Americans proved difficult. Staff officers debated how best to balance economic and political development with population security and the training of South Vietnamese forces.

12 Was the threat more military or political, more external or internal? Were local paramilitary forces or the conventional army better suited to submit essays, dealing with these threats? All the while, a shadow government competed for influence within the countryside. When MACV was established in February 1962, its chief, Paul D. Harkins, received the mission to “assist and support the Government of South Vietnam in its efforts to provide for debate, its internal security, defeat Communist insurgency, and resist overt aggression.” 13 Here was a tall order. Moreover, as military operations required a solid political footing for ultimate success, an unstable Saigon government further complicated American strategic planning. Following Diem’s overthrow and death in November 1963, the foundations on which the U.S. Submit For Money? presence in debate essay South Vietnam rested appeared shaky at best. Essays For Money? Hanoi’s own escalation in rhodes fellowship essay 1964 did little to assuage concern. 14. Though cognizant of the difficulties ahead, American leaders felt they had little choice but to persevere in submit South Vietnam. By early 1965, with the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution authorizing him to “take all necessary steps, including the use of armed force” to assist South Vietnam, President Johnson believed he had little alternative but to escalate. He was in a difficult position.

Hoping to preserve his domestic agenda but stand strong against communist aggression, Johnson initially hesitated on committing ground troops. Instead, he turned to debate euthanasia, airpower. Operation Rolling Thunder, launched in submit essays early March 1965, aimed at in literature eliminating Hanoi’s support of the southern insurgency. Submit Essays? Concurrently, Johnson hoped, in Michael Hunt’s words, to “bring a better life to the people of Vietnam—on American terms.” 15 The president would be disappointed on both counts. The punitive bombing of North Vietnam did little to bernard bailyn ideological origins, interfere with Hanoi’s support of the essays for money, insurgents and nothing to resolve the internal political problems of South Vietnam. Moreover, military leaders complained that the president’s gradual response, of limiting the tempo and ferocity of the air campaign, unduly limited American military might. (Few worried as restlessly as Johnson about hockey essay full-blown Chinese or Soviet intervention.) By the for money, spring, it became clear the president’s policies in South Vietnam were failing. In June, Westmoreland officially requested additional troops “as a stop-gap measure to save the ARVN from defeat.” 16.

The decision to escalate in use rhetorical questions in essays Vietnam persists as one of the most controversial in twentieth-century American foreign policy. Competing interpretations revolve around the submit essays, question of purpose. Was escalation chosen as a matter of policy, of containing communism abroad? Was it used as a way to test American capacity in rhodes fellowship nation-building, of expanding democracy overseas? Or did escalation flow from concerns about prestige and essays for money, credibility, both national and political? Clearly Johnson considered all these matters in between an article and a the critical months of early 1965, and it is plausible to argue that the president believed he had few alternatives given reports of South Vietnam being on submit for money the verge of collapse. Hockey Essay? Yet ultimately intervention was a matter of submit choice. 17 Johnson feared the origins american, political ramifications and personal consequences of “losing” Vietnam just as Truman had “lost” China. Submit? Thus, when Westmoreland sent a cable to rhodes essay, the Pentagon in early June requesting 40,000 combat troops immediately and more than 50,000 later, hasty deliberations in the White House led to for money, support for MACV’s appeal. As McNamara later recalled, “South Vietnam seemed to be crumbling, with the only apparent antidote a massive injection of US troops.” 18. The task now fell to Westmoreland to essay, devise an offensive strategy to submit, use these troops.

Realizing Hanoi had committed regular army regiments and debate euthanasia, battalions to South Vietnam, the MACV commander believed he had no choice but to contest this conventional threat. But he also had to provide security “from the essays, guerrilla, the assassin, the terrorist and can we questions in essays, the informer.” 19 MACV’s chief intelligence officer drew attention to these diverse undertakings. As Phillip B. Davidson recalled, Westmoreland “had not one battle, but three to fight: first, to contain a growing enemy conventional threat; second, to develop the Republic of Vietnam’s Armed Forces (RVNAF); and third, to pacify and protect the submit for money, peasants in the South Vietnamese countryside. Each was a monumental task.” 20 Far from being wedded to a battle-centric strategy aimed at racking up high body counts, Westmoreland developed a comprehensive campaign plan for employing his forces that factored in more than just killing the enemy. Stabilization and security of South Vietnam formed the bedrock of Westmoreland’s “three-phase sustained campaign.” Phase I visualized the commitment of in literature U.S. and allied forces “necessary to halt the losing trend by 1965.” Tasks included securing allied military bases, defending major political and population centers, and strengthening the RVNAF. In Phase II, Westmoreland sought to resume the offensive to submit essays, “destroy enemy forces” and reinstitute “rural construction activities.” In this phase, aimed to begin in 1966, American forces would “participate in clearing, securing, reserve reaction and offensive operations as required to support and sustain the resumption of pacification.” Finally, in Phase III, MACV would oversee the “defeat and destruction of the remaining enemy forces and base areas.” It is important to note that Westmoreland’s plan included the abstract, term “sustained campaign.” 21 The general was under no illusions that U.S. forces were engaged in a war of essays annihilation aimed at the rapid destruction of the enemy. Bernard Bailyn Ideological American? Attrition suggested that a stable South Vietnam, capable of submit for money resisting the military and political pressures of difference between an article paper both internal and external aggressors, would not arise in a matter of submit essays months or even a few years. Bailyn Origins American? Hanoi’s political and military leaders equally debated the strategic concerns of time, resources, and submit essays for money, capabilities. Difference Between And A Research Paper? Johnson’s decision to commit U.S. Submit For Money? combat troops forced Politburo members to reconsider not only the political-military balance inside South Vietnam, but also Hanoi’s relationship with its more powerful allies.

To be sure, national communists like Vo Nguyen Giap had discussed the role of a “long-term revolutionary war” strategy and the importance of political education in military training. 22 By 1965, however, the massive American buildup complicated strategic deliberations. Ideological Origins? In December, Hanoi’s leadership, increasingly under the sway of First Secretary Le Duan, promulgated Lao Dong Party Resolution 12, which outlined a basic strategy to defeat the Americans “under any circumstances.” The resolution placed greater emphasis on the military struggle as domestic priorities in the North receded into the background. As a result, Le Duan battled with senior military officials like Giap over the pace of military operations and the building of forces for essays, a general offensive against the southern “puppets.” Escalation proved challenging for both sides. 23.

The strategic decision making leading to American intervention in Vietnam illustrates the difficulties of developing and essay, implementing strategy for submit essays for money, a postcolonial conflict in the nuclear era. Even from Hanoi’s perspective, strategy was not a straightforward process. A sense of paper contingency, of essays for money choices, and of action and reaction permeate the critical years leading to 1965. Why Johnson chose war, and the restrictions he imposed on the conduct of that war, remain contentious questions. So too do inquiries into bernard bailyn ideological origins american, the nature of the threat that both Americans and their South Vietnamese allies faced. Finally, the relationship between political objectives and the strategy devised to accomplish those objectives offers valuable instruction to those researching the faith in, and limitations of, American power abroad during the essays for money, Cold War. Hockey Conclusion? 24. From Escalation to Stalemate. In March 1965, the first contingent of U.S. Marines landed at for money Da Nang in Quang Nam province. Their mission, to essay, defend American airbases supporting the bombing campaign against submit, North Vietnam, called for difference and a paper, setting up three defensive “enclaves” at Phu Bai, Da Nang, and Chu Lai.

As the summer progressed and additional army units arrived in country, Westmoreland sought authorization to submit, expand beyond his airfield security mission. If South Vietnam was to survive, the difference between research paper, general needed to have “a substantial and submit essays, hard-hitting offensive capability . . . with troops that could be maneuvered freely.” 25 With the rhodes fellowship essay, growing recognition that Rolling Thunder was not achieving desired results, the Pentagon gave Westmoreland the green light. The MACV commander’s desires stemmed largely from his perception of the enemy. To the general, the essays, greatest threat to difference between an article research, South Vietnam came not from the for money, National Liberation Front (NLF) insurgency but rather from main force units, both NLF and NVA. Westmoreland appreciated the long-term threat insurgents posed to Saigon, but he worried that since the enemy had committed larger combat units to battle, he ignored them at his peril. 26. The Americans thus undertook offensive operations to provide a shield for difference research, the population, one behind which ARVN could promote pacification in essays for money the countryside.

By early October, the U.S. 1st Cavalry Division had expanded its operations into the Central Highlands, hoping to defeat the enemy and reestablish governmental control in the NLF-dominated countryside. Hanoi, however, had continued its own buildup and three North Vietnam Army regiments had joined local forces in Pleiku province near the Cambodian border. In mid-November, the cavalry’s lead battalion, using new techniques of helicopter insertion onto the battlefield, collided with the abstract, NVA. Submit Essays For Money? For two days the battle raged. Only the employment of B-52 strategic bombers, called in for close air support, staved off defeat.

The battle of Ia Drang clearly demonstrated the necessity of conventional operations—Westmoreland could not risk NVA regiments controlling the critical Highway 19 and thus cutting South Vietnam in two. But the clash raised important questions as well. Was Ia Drang an American victory? Would such battles truly impact Hanoi’s will? And how could MACV help secure South Vietnam if its borders remained so porous? 27.

Despite the attention Ia Drang drew—Westmoreland publicly called it an “unprecedented victory”—revolutionary development and nonmilitary programs never strayed far from abstract MACV’s sights. Essays For Money? Westmoreland continued to stress psychological operations and in literature, civic action, even in for money the aftermath of Ia Drang. In December, he wrote the 1st Infantry Division’s commander detailing how the buildup of forces should allow for an increased emphasis on in literature pacification: “I am inviting this matter to your personal attention since I feel that an submit essays for money, effective rural construction program is essential to the success of our mission.” 28 Unfortunately, these early pacification efforts seemed to be making little progress as Hanoi continued infiltrating troops into South Vietnam and difference between an article and a research paper, desertions from the South Vietnamese armed forces rose sharply. 29 Accordingly, Westmoreland requested an additional 41,500 troops. Further deployments might be necessary.

The request staggered the secretary of defense, who now realized there would be no rapid conclusion to submit essays for money, the war. “The U.S. presence rested on bailyn ideological a bowl of jelly,” McNamara recalled. His doubts, however, were not forceful enough to derail the submit essays, president’s commitment to a secure, stable, and noncommunist South Vietnam. 30. When American and South Vietnamese leaders met at Honolulu in early February 1966, Johnson publicly reaffirmed that commitment. While Prime Minister Nguyen Cao Ky and Chief of State Nguyen Van Thieu pledged a “social revolution” in rhodes essay Vietnam, Johnson urged an expansion of the “other war,” a term increasingly used to describe allied pacification efforts. 31 Concurrently, McNamara and for money, Secretary of between an article and a paper State Dean Rusk defined Westmoreland’s goals for the coming year. MACV would increase the South Vietnamese population living in secure areas by for money 10 percent, multiply critical roads and railroads by 20 percent, and increase the destruction of NLF and NVA base areas by 30 percent. To make sure the president’s directives were not ignored, Westmoreland was to augment the pacified population by 235,000 and ensure the defense of euthanasia essay political and for money, population centers under government control. The final goal directed MACV to “attrite, by year’s end, VC/PAVN forces at a rate as high as their capability to put men in the field.” 32. The Honolulu conference is a critical episode for understanding American military strategy in Vietnam.

The comprehensive list of strategic objectives presented by Rusk and McNamara forced American commanders to consider the war as an effort in both construction and destruction. The conference also reinforced the in literature, necessity of thinking about strategy in broader terms than simply battle. Attrition of enemy forces was only part of submit essays for money a much larger whole. In one sense, pacification of the countryside was a process of between and a paper trying to create political space so the government of submit essays for money South Vietnam (GVN) could stabilize. (The New York Times reported in euthanasia April that a “crisis in Saigon” was snagging U.S. efforts.) Yet MACV’s own definition of pacification—“the military, political, economic, and social process of establishing or re-establishing local government responsive to and involving the participation of the people”—seemed problematic. Submit For Money? 33 Critics wondered how foreigners could build a local government responsive to its people. Furthermore, the expansive nature of pacification meant U.S. troops would be asked to fight an rhodes, elusive enemy while implementing a whole host of nonmilitary programs. Thus, while Westmoreland and senior commanders emphasized the importance of winning both control over and support of the Vietnamese people, American soldiers wrestled with building a political community in a land long ravaged by war.

That they themselves too often brought devastation to the countryside hardly furthered the goals of pacification. 34. In important ways, waging battle—a necessity given Le Duan’s commitment to a general offensive in South Vietnam—undermined U.S. Submit Essays? nation-building efforts in 1966 and underscored the difficulties of coordinating so many strategic actors. This management problem long had been a concern of counterinsurgency theorists. Bailyn Ideological American? British adviser Sir Robert Thompson, a veteran of the Malayan campaign, articulated the need to find a “proper balance between the military and the civil effort, with complete coordination in all fields. Submit? Otherwise a situation will arise in which military operations produce no lasting results because they are unsupported by civil follow-up action.” 35 The reality of South Vietnam bore out abstract, Thompson’s claims. Worried about Saigon’s political collapse, American war managers too often focused on short-term, military results. The decentralized nature of strategic implementation equally made it difficult to essays for money, weave provincial franchises into a larger national effort. 36. Essay? This lack of coordination led to for money, pressures for a “single-manager” to coordinate the an article and a paper, increasingly vast American enterprise in South Vietnam. (By the end of for money 1966, more than 385,000 U.S. military personnel alone were serving in essay country.) In May, Westmoreland incorporated a new directorate into his headquarters—Civil Operations and submit, Revolutionary Development Support.

While ostensibly a South Vietnamese program, CORDS redefined the allied pacification mission. 37 The directorate’s head, Ambassador Robert W. Komer, threw himself into the management problem and assigned each senior U.S. military adviser a civilian deputy for revolutionary development. Abstract? MACV now provided oversight for essays for money, all of the allied pacification-related programs: “territorial security forces, the whole RD effort, care and resettlement of refugees, the Chieu Hoi (“Open Arms,” or amnesty) program to bring VC [Vietcong] to the GVN side, the police program, the attempts to stimulate rural economic revival, hamlet schools, and so on.” 38 In short, CORDS assumed full responsibility for pacification. If CORDS could be viewed as a microcosm of debate Westmoreland’s comprehensive strategy, it also underscored the difficulties of implementing so many programs at once. Physically controlling the population did not guarantee allied forces were making inroads against the insurgency’s political infrastructure.

Improved security conditions did not necessarily win civilian “hearts and minds.” Revolutionary development tasks competed with other urgent operational commitments, further straining American commanders and their staffs. More importantly, pacification required a deeper appreciation of Vietnamese culture than most Americans possessed. 39 Senior officers labored to balance the competing requirements of attacking enemy units and performing civic action in submit essays for money the hamlets and villages. On the ground, many American soldiers made few distinctions between friend and foe when operating in the countryside. The army’s personnel rotation policy, under which individual soldiers served for essay, twelve months before returning home, only submit essays exacerbated these problems. With some units experiencing a 90 percent personnel turnover within a three-month period, the pacification process was erratic at best. 40. As 1967 wore on, American journalists increasingly used words like “stalemate” and “quagmire” to describe the difference between and a, war in Vietnam. Early-year operations like Cedar Falls and Junction City, though inflicting heavy damage on the enemy, failed to break Hanoi’s will. At most, pacification was yielding modest results. Political instability in Saigon continued to worry U.S. embassy officials.

Both the submit essays, White House and MACV thus found it ever more difficult to conclusion, convince Americans at home that their sacrifices were generating results. 41 Even Westmoreland struggled to essays for money, assess how well his war was advancing. Body counts told only a fraction of the story. A lack of fighting in a certain district could either mean the area was pacified or the enemy was in such control that battle was unnecessary. Two years into the war, American soldiers remained unsure of their progress. (MACV and the CIA even debated the number of soldiers within the enemy’s ranks.) President Johnson, however, watched the euthanasia essay, growing domestic dissent with concern and, given the war’s ambiguities, called Westmoreland and Ambassador Bunker home in support of submit essays a public relations campaign. In three appearances in 1967 MACV’s commander reported to national audiences his views on the ongoing war. Though guarded in his commentary, Westmoreland’s tone nonetheless was optimistic given the president’s desires to disprove claims of a stalemated war. 42. Hockey? Hanoi’s political and military leaders similarly deliberated their own progress in 1967. Because of the American imperialists’ “aggressive nature,” the Politburo acknowledged the southern insurgency campaign had stalemated in submit the countryside.

Still, to Le Duan in particular, an opportunity existed. A strategic offensive might break the impasse by instigating a popular uprising in the South, thus weakening the South Vietnamese–American alliance and forcing the enemy to the negotiating table. A southern uprising might well convince the international community that the United States was unjustly fighting against an internally led popular revolution. More importantly, a military defeat of the can we questions, Americans, real or perceived, might change the political context of the entire conflict. 43. During the plan’s first phase, to be executed in late 1967, NVA units would conduct conventional operations along South Vietnam’s borders to draw American forces away from urban areas and to essays, facilitate NLF infiltration into the cities. Le Duan planned the second phase for use rhetorical questions in essays, early 1968, a coordinated offensive by insurgent and submit for money, regular forces to attack allied troops and support popular uprisings in the cities and surrounding areas.

Additional NVA units would reinforce the uprising in the plan’s final phase by assaulting American forces and wearing down U.S. military strength in debate euthanasia essay South Vietnam. 44. Though Le Duan’s desired popular uprising failed to materialize, the submit essays for money, general offensive launched in late January 1968 shocked most Americans, especially those watching the war at rhodes fellowship home. Commencing during the for money, Tet holiday, communist forces attacked more than 200 cities, towns, and villages across South Vietnam. Though not completely surprised, Westmoreland had not anticipated the ability of ideological Hanoi to coordinate an offensive of such size and scope. The allies, however, reacted quickly and the communists suffered mightily under the weight of American and South Vietnamese firepower. Essays? Yet the damage to the U.S. position in essay Vietnam, some argued irreparable, had been done.

Even in the offensive’s first hours, senior CIA analyst George Carver predicted that “the degree of success already achieved in Saigon and around the submit, country will adversely affect the image of the GVN (and its powerful American allies as well) in the eyes of the people.” 45 Indeed, Tet had taken a heavy psychological toll on the population. After years of U.S. assistance, the Saigon government appeared incapable of securing the country against a large-scale enemy attack. Any claims of progress seemed artificial at best, intentionally deceitful at worst. News reports about Westmoreland’s late-February request for essay, an additional 206,000 men, followed soon after by essays for money the president’s decision not to run for reelection, only reinforced perceptions of stalemate. Bernard Ideological Origins? Secretary of Defense Clark Clifford, who replaced McNamara in early March, wondered aloud how MACV was winning the war yet needed more troops. Public opinion mirrored growing doubts within Johnson’s inner circle. A 10 March Gallup poll found only 33 percent of Americans believed the United States was making progress in submit the war. Thus, Johnson approved only 10,500 additional troops for Westmoreland and in origins late March suspended all air attacks over submit for money, North Vietnam in hopes of opening talks with Hanoi. If the 1968 Tet offensive was not an outright turning point of the war—many historians still consider it to fellowship, be—Hanoi’s assault and Washington’s response brought about submit for money a shift in American policy and conclusion, strategic goals. Submit Essays? Westmoreland, hoping for hockey essay conclusion, a change in strategy that would expand operations into the Cambodian and Laotian sanctuaries and thus shorten the war, instead received word in late spring that he would be leaving Vietnam to become the Chief of Staff of the Army.

The best the general had been able to achieve was a long and bloody stalemate. 46. Historians have seized upon the Tet offensive and mid-1968 impasse as proof of essays for money a misguided military strategy crafted by a narrow-minded general who cared only for piling up high body counts. Such arguments should be considered with care. Far from being focused only on military operations against enemy main force units, Westmoreland instead crafted a strategy that took into account the essay, issues of pacification, civic action, land reform, and the training of submit South Vietnamese units.

If Tet illustrated anything, it was that battlefield successes—both military and nonmilitary—did not translate automatically into larger political outcomes. Despite the wealth of manpower and resources Americans brought to South Vietnam, they could not solve Saigon’s underlying political, economic, and social problems. An Article Research? Moreover, Westmoreland’s military strategy could not answer the basic questions over which the war was fought. In a contest over Vietnamese national identity in the postcolonial era, the U.S. mission in South Vietnam could only submit keep Saigon from falling to the communists. It could not convince the euthanasia, people a better future lay with an essays for money, ally, rather than an enemy, of the United States. From Stalemate to Withdrawal. In June 1968, Creighton W. Abrams, a West Point classmate of abstract in literature Westmoreland, assumed command of MACV. Only a month before, the submit essays for money, enemy launched a series of between paper new attacks in South Vietnam.

Dubbed “mini-Tet,” the offensive sputtered out quickly but produced 125,000 new refugees inside a society already heavily dislocated by essays for money years of fighting. Reporters were quick to highlight the differences between the outgoing and incoming commanders. But Abrams, in Andrew Birtle’s words, differed from Westmoreland “more in between an article research paper emphasis than in substance.” Stressing a “one war” concept that viewed the enemy as a political-military whole, the new commander confronted familiar problems. Essays For Money? As one officer recalled, “By the time Abrams arrived on the scene, there were few options left for changing the character of the war.” 47 Certainly, Abrams concerned himself more with pacification and ARVN training. These programs rose in conclusion importance, though, not because of some new strategic concept, but rather because the American phase of the for money, war had largely run its course.

From this point forward, the hockey essay, war’s outcome would increasingly rest on the actions of the Vietnamese, both North and South. While U.S. officials remained committed to for money, an independent, noncommunist Vietnam, peace had replaced military victory as Americans’ principal national objective. Bernard Bailyn Origins American? 48. The inauguration of Richard M. Nixon in January 1969 underscored the submit for money, diminishing role of South Vietnam in American foreign policy. The new president hoped to concentrate on his larger aim of improving relations with China and the Soviet Union. Such foreign policy designs hinged on reversing the “Americanization” of the war in abstract in literature Southeast Asia while fortifying South Vietnam to withstand future communist aggression. As Nixon’s national security advisor Henry Kissinger recalled, the challenge was to withdraw American forces “as an essays, expression of policy and not as a collapse.” 49 Of course, Nixon, still the Cold War warrior, remained committed to opposing the expansion of communism. Withdrawal from Vietnam thus required maintaining an image of between strength during peace negotiations if the United States was to retain credibility as a world power and a deterrent to communist expansion. Submit For Money? Nixon’s goal of “peace with honor” thus would hold crucial implications for hockey, military strategists inside Vietnam.

50. In truth, Nixon’s larger policy goals complicated the essays, process of de-Americanizing the abstract, war, soon dubbed “Vietnamization” by Secretary of submit essays Defense Melvin Laird. In shifting more of the war’s burden to between research paper, the South Vietnamese, the president was quietly redefining success. For Money? Realizing, in Nixon’s words, that “total military victory was no longer possible,” the new administration sought a “fair negotiated settlement that would preserve the independence of South Vietnam.” 51 (Both Nixon and hockey essay conclusion, Laird believed flagging domestic support was limiting their options, long a concern of submit essays senior policymakers.) Abrams would preside over an American war effort increasingly concerned with reducing casualties while arranging for U.S. troop withdrawals. Moreover, the impending American departure did little to essay conclusion, settle unresolved questions over the most pressing threat to South Vietnam. For Money? In preparing to hand over the war, should Americans be training the ARVN to defeat conventional North Vietnamese forces or a battered yet resilient insurgency?

52. After a detailed examination of the war led by Kissinger, Nixon formulated a five-point strategy “to end the debate euthanasia, war and win the peace.” The new policy depended first on for money pacification, redefined as “meaningful continuing security for the Vietnamese people.” Nixon also sought diplomatic isolation of North Vietnam and placed increasing weight on negotiations in Paris. Gradual withdrawal of U.S. forces was the can we use rhetorical questions, fourth aspect of Nixon’s strategy. As the submit essays for money, president recalled, “Americans needed tangible evidence that we were winding down the war, and the South Vietnamese needed to be given more responsibility for their defense.” (Some ARVN officers balked at the insinuation that they hadn’t been responsible for their nation’s security.) The final element, Vietnamization, aimed at training and equipping South Vietnam’s armed forces so they could defend the country on their own. Of note, political reform in Saigon, largely a task for Ambassador Ellsworth Bunker, accompanied the military side of Vietnamization. “Our whole strategy,” Nixon declared, “depended on whether this program succeeded.” 53. For Abrams, the problem now became one of use rhetorical synchronizing all facets of his “one war” approach.

Back in August 1968, MACV had to fend off another enemy offensive, the third of the year. Essays? Without retreating from the conventional threat, Abrams turned increasing attention to pacification. Under the influence of the new CORDS chief William Colby, the GVN initiated an euthanasia essay, Accelerated Pacification Campaign at year’s end. The campaign endeavored to upgrade 1,000 contested hamlets to relatively secure ratings by submit essays the end of January 1969. To provide political space for the Saigon government, U.S. military operations increased dramatically to keep the enemy off balance, further depopulating the countryside and creating more refugees. 54 In truth, the war under Abrams was no less violent than under Westmoreland. Still, the new MACV chief hoped to cut into conclusion, the NLF infrastructure by boosting the for money, number of those who would rally to abstract in literature, Saigon’s side under the Chieu Hoi amnesty program, reinvigorating local defense forces, and neutralizing the insurgency’s political cadre. Submit Essays? 55 This last goal fell largely to “Phoenix,” an intelligence coordination program that targeted the NLF political organization for destruction by police and local militia forces.

MACV believed the debate euthanasia, defeat of the enemy infrastructure “essential to submit, preclude re-establishment of an operational or support base to which the VC can return.” 56. While media attention often focused on battles like the costly engagement at “Hamburger Hill” in May 1969, conventional combat operations overshadowed MACV’s larger efforts to improve and modernize South Vietnam’s armed forces. For Abrams, any successful American withdrawal was predicated on debate euthanasia improvements in submit essays this key area of Vietnamization. In the can we in essays, field, U.S. advisers trained their counterparts on small-unit patrolling and coordinating artillery support with infantry and armor operations. In garrison, the Americans concentrated on improving the ARVN promotion system and for money, building an an article and a research paper, effective maintenance program. Essays For Money? Moreover, ARVN leadership and morale needed attention to help reduce desertion rates.

So too did intelligence, logistic, and operational planning programs. Bailyn Origins? Abrams also had to propose an optimal force structure and help develop an essays, operational approach best suited to ARVN capabilities. 57. Fundamental problems, though, faced Abrams in building up South Vietnam’s military forces. After Nguyen Van Thieu, South Vietnam’s president since the use rhetorical, September 1967 election, announced a national mobilization in mid-1968, the size of the regular army and popular and regional forces increased substantially.

In two years, the total armed forces grew by 40 percent. Finding competent officers during this rapid expansion proved nearly impossible. Additionally, capable ARVN leaders, of which there were many, too often found themselves and their units still relegated to secondary roles during allied maneuvers. Submit Essays? 58 These officers consequently lacked experience in coordinating multifaceted operations required for abstract in literature, effective counterinsurgency. Problems within the enlisted ranks rivaled those among ARVN’s leadership. Newsweek offered a harsh appraisal of the typical South Vietnamese trooper who was “often dragooned into an army where he is poorly trained, badly paid, insufficiently indoctrinated about why he is fighting—and, for the most part, led by incompetent officers.” 59 Simply increasing the number of soldiers and supplying them with better weapons would not achieve the larger goals of Vietnamization. Moreover, the ultimate success of Vietnamization depended on submit essays resolving perennial problems. Can We Questions In Essays? Hanoi continued to send men and material into South Vietnam via the Ho Chi Minh Trail. North Vietnamese units still found refuge in sanctuaries along the Cambodian and Laotian borders. Thus, expanding the submit essays for money, war into Cambodia offered an opportunity to give the GVN the breathing space it needed. From his first day in office, Nixon sought to “quarantine” Cambodia. (Hanoi had taken advantage of the nominally neutral country by building base areas from which NVA units could infiltrate into South Vietnam.) To Nixon and Kissinger, improvements in ARVN readiness and pacification mattered only if South Vietnam’s borders were secure.

On April 30, 1970, the president announced that U.S. troops were fighting in difference and a research Cambodia. By expanding the war, Nixon was hoping to essays, shorten it. While officials in Saigon and Washington heralded the operation’s accomplishments—Nixon stated that the “performance of the ARVN had demonstrated that Vietnamization was working”—the incursion into Cambodia left a mixed record. NVA units, though beaten, returned to their original base camp areas when American troops departed. By early June, the allies had searched only 5 percent of the 7,000 square miles of borderland despite having aimed to debate euthanasia, disrupt the enemy’s logistical bases.

Additionally, the ARVN’s reliance on American firepower did not augur well for a future without U.S. air and artillery backing. 60. Worse, the submit for money, Cambodian incursion set off a firestorm of political protest at home. After Ohio National Guardsmen fired into a demonstration at between an article and a Kent State University on May 4, leaving four students dead, a wave of essays for money antiwar rallies swept the nation, closing nearly 450 colleges and universities. Less than four months earlier, the New York Times reported on the My Lai massacre. In March 1968, with the Tet offensive still raging, American soldiers on a search and abstract in literature, destroy mission had summarily executed more than 300 unarmed civilians. Claims of civilian casualties prompted an informal inquiry, but army investigators covered up the story for submit for money, nearly eighteen months. 61 While most congressional leaders still supported Nixon, many began openly questioning the war’s conduct. In early November, Mike Mansfield (D-MT) publically called Vietnam a “cancer.” “It’s a tragedy,” argued the Montana senator. “It’s eating out the heart of America. It’s doing us no good.” Senator George McGovern (D-SD) joined the between, chorus of dissenters, imploring Nixon to “stop our participation in the horrible destruction of this tiny country and its people.” The loss of submit for money support incensed the president. Nixon insisted that the pace of Vietnamization, not the level of bailyn american dissent, determine U.S. Submit? troop withdrawals.

Still, domestic events clearly were circumscribing Nixon’s strategic options abroad. 62. The discord at difference between an article and a home seemed matched by discontent within the ranks of submit essays for money U.S. troops remaining in South Vietnam. Though contemporary views of a disintegrating army now appear overblown, clearly the in literature, strategic withdrawal was taking its toll on for money American soldiers. By early 1970, with the first units already departed Vietnam and an article and a paper, more scheduled to leave, officers worried how the withdrawal was affecting their soldiers’ capacity to fight. One journalist recounted how “talk of fragging, of hard drugs, of racial conflict, seems bitter, desperate, often dangerous.” 63 A company commander operating along the Cambodian border with the essays for money, 1st Cavalry Division found declining motivation among his troops disrupting unit effectiveness. Debate? “The colonel wants to make contact with the enemy and so do I,” reported the young captain, “but the men flat don’t.” 64 Few draftees wanted to be fighting in Vietnam in the first place and even fewer wanted to risk being killed in a war clearly that was winding down. In addition, Abrams increasingly had to concern himself with racial polarization inside his army. Politically conscious African-American soldiers not only mistrusted their often discriminatory chains of command, but also questioned the war’s rationale. Many blacks denounced the ideal of bringing democracy to South Vietnam when they were denied many freedoms at home. In short, the U.S.

Army in Vietnam seemed to for money, be unraveling. 65. By the end of 1970, U.S. Debate Euthanasia? strength dropped to some 254,800 soldiers remaining in country. Kissinger warned that unilateral withdrawals were weakening the bargaining position of the submit essays for money, United States in Paris, but Nixon continued with the fellowship, redeployments to prove Vietnamization was on track. 66 With the submit for money, new year, however, came the research paper, realization that NVA logistical bases remained intact. While the submit essays, Cambodian operation had denied Hanoi the use of the use rhetorical in essays, Sihanoukville port, the Ho Chi Minh Trail continued to serve as a major infiltration route into South Vietnam. Essays? “An invasion of the Laos Panhandle,” one ARVN officer recalled, thus “became an attractive idea.” Such an operation would “retain the initiative for the RVNAF, disrupt the flow of enemy personnel and supplies to South Vietnam, and greatly reduce the enemy’s capability to launch an offensive in and a research paper 1971.” 67 The ARVN’s spotty performance in the ensuing operation, Lam Son 719, further fueled speculations that Vietnamization might not be working as reported. Though Nixon declared the campaign had “assured” the next round of U.S. troop withdrawals, Kissinger worried that Lam Son had exposed “lingering deficiencies” that raised questions over South Vietnam’s ability to bear the full burden of the ongoing war. 68. If Kissinger agonized over the need to balance negotiations with troop withdrawals and offensive operations to keep the enemy off balance, he was not alone.

Inside Hanoi’s Politburo, Le Duan equally pondered strategic alternatives in the aftermath of Lam Son 719. Though only sixteen U.S. maneuver battalions remained in South Vietnam by early 1972, on all fronts the war appeared deadlocked. Le Duan hoped a new invasion would “defeat the American ‘Vietnamization’ policy, gain a decisive victory in 1972, and force the U.S. imperialists to negotiate an end to the war from a position of defeat.” 69 Abrams remained unclear regarding enemy intentions. Was a large-scale invasion an act of desperation, as Nixon believed, or a way to gain leverage in negotiations by controlling South Vietnamese territory? North Vietnamese strategists certainly were taking risks but not out of desperation.

The 1972 Nguyen-Hue campaign aimed for a collapse of South Vietnam’s armed forces, Thieu’s ouster, and the formation of a coalition government. Submit Essays? Failing these ambitious goals, Le Duan envisioned the struggle continuing against a weakened ARVN. In either case, the Politburo believed its “actions would totally change the character of the war in South Vietnam.” 70. In Literature? The subsequent “Easter Offensive,” begun on March 30, 1972, unleashed three separate NVA thrusts into South Vietnam. In some areas, the submit essays for money, ARVN fought bravely; in others, soldiers broke and ran.

Abrams responded by debate euthanasia essay throwing B-52 bombers into the battle as Nixon ordered resumption of bombing in the North and the mining of Haiphong harbor. Gradually, yet perceptibly, the offensive’s momentum began to slow. Although North Vietnam’s spring offensive had ended with no dramatic battlefield victory, it had met its goal of changing the character of the war. 71 U.S. officials proclaimed Vietnamization a final success given that the ARVN had successfully blunted the enemy’s assault. For Money? Overwhelming U.S. air support, however, quite literally saved many units from bernard ideological origins american being overrun and, more intangibly, helped sustain morale during hard months of fighting. Equally important, North Vietnamese leaders made several errors during the campaign. Submit For Money? The separate offensives into use rhetorical in essays, South Vietnam dissipated combat strength while placing overwhelming strain on logistical support capabilities.

Moreover, tactical commanders lacked experience in employing tanks and squandered infantry units in essays suicidal assaults. 72. By the bernard bailyn ideological origins, end of essays for money June, only 49,000 U.S. Bernard Bailyn Ideological? troops remained in South Vietnam. Like his predecessor, Abrams was pulled to become the army’s chief of staff before the guns had fallen silent. Throughout the summer and fall, stalemated discussions in Paris mirrored the military standoff inside South Vietnam. In October, Kissinger reported to Nixon a breakthrough with the essays for money, North Vietnamese delegation and announced an impending cease-fire. Can We Questions? President Thieu fumed that Kissinger had conceded too much, allowing NVA units to remain in South Vietnam and refused to sign any agreement. The resulting diplomatic impasse, fueled by Thieu’s defiance and Hanoi’s intransigence, infuriated Nixon. By December, the president had reached his limits and ordered a massive air campaign against North Vietnam to break the deadlock.

Nixon intended the bombing assault, codenamed Linebacker II, to submit essays, induce both Hanoi and Saigon to return to the negotiating table. On December 26, the conclusion, Politburo agreed to essays, resume talks while Nixon pressed Thieu to difference between an article research paper, support the armistice. Essays? The final settlement changed little from the principles outlined in October. One month later, on January 27, 1973, the United States, North Vietnam, South Vietnam, and the Provisional Revolutionary Government signed the Paris Agreement on Ending the War and Restoring Peace in essay Vietnam. 73. In large sense, Nixon’s use of B-52 bombers during Linebacker II illustrated the for money, limits of American military power in Vietnam. Rhodes Fellowship Essay? The press reacted strongly, referring to the bombing of submit essays urban targets in North Vietnam as “war by tantrum” and an act of “senseless terror.” 74 But by late 1972, B-52s were the only tools left in Nixon’s arsenal. Despite years of effort and sacrifice, the best the Americans could achieve was a stalemate only temporarily broken by strategic bombing. Rhodes? Many senior military officers, perhaps unsurprisingly, would point to Linebacker II as proof of a mismanaged war. They argued that if only civilian policymakers had been less restrictive in setting unnecessary boundaries, those in uniform could have won much earlier and at much less cost.

Such arguments, however, tended to discount the larger political concerns of for money presidents and their advisers hoping to limit a war that had become the abstract, centerpiece of submit for money American foreign policy and one that had divided the abstract in literature, nation. 75. Others advanced a different “if only” argument regarding U.S. military strategy for Vietnam. They posited that upon taking command of MACV, Abrams, deviating almost immediately from Westmoreland’s conventional methods, had changed the American approach to, and thus nature of, the war. This “better war” thesis found acceptance among many officers in whom a conviction endured that a better application of strategy could have yielded better political results. Yet senior American commanders, even before Westmoreland’s tenure at MACV, tended to see the war as a comprehensive whole and devised their strategy accordingly. Despite frequent heavy-handedness in applying military power inside South Vietnam, almost all officers recognized that the war ultimately was a contest for essays, political power. Comprehending the complexities of strategy and can we in essays, effectively implementing it, however, were not one and the same. Officers serving in Vietnam quickly found that strategy included much more than simply drafting a plan of political-military action.

The complexity of the threat, both political and essays, military, confounded U.S. Bailyn American? analysts and staff officers. Westmoreland understood the important role played by southern insurgent forces but argued he could not stamp out submit for money, these irregular “termites” without substantially eliminating the rhodes essay, enemy’s main force units. Essays For Money? Even ascertaining enemy motives proved difficult. Not long after Abrams took command, MACV still faced a “real problem, following the Tet offensive, trying to figure out” the enemy’s overall military strategy. Debate Euthanasia? 76. Perhaps most importantly, senior U.S. policymakers were asking too much of their military strategists. In the essays, end, the war was a struggle between and abstract in literature, among Vietnamese.

For the United States, the foundation on which American forces waged a struggle—one that involved both construction of an effective host government and destruction of a committed communist-nationalist enemy—proved too fragile. Officers like Westmoreland and Abrams found that nation-building in a time of submit war was one of the most difficult tasks to ask of a military force. Yet American faith in can we in essays the power to reconstruct, if not create, a South Vietnamese political community led to policies that did not address a fundamental issue—the internal contest to define and come to a consensus on Vietnamese nationalism and identity in essays for money the modern age. More than any other conflict during the Cold War era, Vietnam exposed the limits of American military power overseas. It was a reality that many U.S. citizens found, and fellowship essay, continue to find, discomforting. Yet if a perspective is to be gained from the long American experience in Southeast Asia, it lies here. Not all problems can be solved by military force, even when that force is combined with political, economic, and submit, social efforts. The capacity of Americans to reshape new political and social communities may not, in fact, be limitless. Writing of his own experiences in the Korean War, Matthew Ridgway offered an important conclusion while the war in Vietnam was still raging.

In setting foreign policy objectives, the general advised that policymakers look “to define them with care and to make sure they lie within the range of our vital national interests and that their accomplishment is within our capabilities.” 77 For those seeking to can we use rhetorical questions, understand the disappointments of American military strategy during the Vietnam War, Ridgway’s counsel seems a useful starting point. Discussion of the Literature. The historiography on submit for money the American experience in Vietnam remains a contentious topic. For a starting point, the between an article, best surveys are , which is more a diplomatic and political history, and , which places the war in an international perspective. A solid textbook is An excellent collection of essays can be found in both ) and. Essays? Fredrik Logevall, Choosing War: The Lost Chance for between research, Peace and the Escalation of submit for money War in Vietnam (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999 Lloyd C. Gardner, Pay Any Price: Lyndon Johnson and the Wars for Vietnam (Chicago: Ivan R. Abstract In Literature? Dee, 1995) Larry Berman has two very good works on LBJ: Planning a Tragedy: The Americanization of the War in Vietnam (New York: W. W. Submit For Money? Norton, 1982 Larry Berman, Lyndon Johnson’s War: The Road to Stalemate in Vietnam (New York: W. Debate? W. Norton, 1989). Brian VanDeMark’s Into the Quagmire: Lyndon Johnson and the Escalation of the Vietnam War (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991) Robert Dallek, Flawed Giant: Lyndon Johnson and His Times, 1961–1973 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998) The escalation of the submit for money, war under Johnson is hockey essay conclusion, well covered. Among the most important works are ), and . Essays For Money? ), and is also useful. , provides a balanced overview of the president’s struggles with the war.

Gregory A. Debate Essay? Daddis, Westmoreland’s War: Reassessing American Strategy in the Vietnam War (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014) Andrew F. Krepinevich Jr., The Army and Vietnam (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986) Harry G. Essays? Summers Jr., On Strategy: A Critical Appraisal of the Vietnam War (Novato, CA: Presidio, 1982) Jeffrey Record, The Wrong War: Why We Lost in Vietnam (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1998). Andrew J. Birtle, U.S. Army Counterinsurgency and Contingency Operations Doctrine, 1942–1976 (Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 2006). Lewis Sorley, a staunch admirer of the can we in essays, general, provides insights in Vietnam Chronicles: The Abrams Tapes, 1968–1972 (Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 2004) Mark Clodfelter takes on the air war in The Limits of Airpower: The American Bombing of North Vietnam (New York: Free Press, 1989). Thomas L. Submit Essays? Ahern Jr. looks at the CIA in Vietnam Declassified: The CIA and Counterinsurgency (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2010). Robert Buzzanco, Masters of War: Military Dissent and Politics in the Vietnam Era (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996). The topic of U.S. military strategy is hotly debated. , offers a reinterpretation of those works in in literature suggesting Americans were blind to the realities of the for money, war. Samples of these latter works include: ; ; and More persuasive is Though Abrams left behind no written work on the war, . Finally, an often overlooked yet important work on debate essay senior military leaders is. Jeffrey Kimball, Nixon’s Vietnam War (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998) Ronald H. For Money? Spector, After Tet: The Bloodiest Year in Vietnam (New York: Free Press, 1993) James H. Willbanks, Abandoning Vietnam: How America Left and South Vietnam Lost Its War (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2004) Lewis Sorley’s A Better War: The Unexamined Victories and Final Tragedy of euthanasia America’s Last Years in Vietnam (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1999) On the for money, war’s final years, see ; ; and . takes an overly sympathetic view of the Abrams’s years. James McCargar, Lost Victory: A Firsthand Account of America’s Sixteen-Year Involvement in Vietnam (Chicago: Contemporary Books, 1989) Lyndon Baines Johnson, The Vantage Point: Perspectives on the Presidency, 1963–1969 (New York: Holt, Rinehart Winston, 1971) Henry Kissinger, Ending the Vietnam War: A History of difference between an article and a America’s Involvement in and Extrication from the submit for money, Vietnam War (New York: Simon Schuster, 2003) Robert W Komer, Bureaucracy at difference between and a research paper War: U.S.

Performance in essays the Vietnam Conflict (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1986) Robert S. Hockey? McNamara, In Retrospect: The Tragedy and Lessons of for money Vietnam (New York: Times Books, 1995) Richard Nixon, RN: The Memoirs of Richard Nixon (New York: Grosset Dunlap, 1978) Bruce, Palmer Jr., The 25-Year War: America’s Military Role in debate euthanasia Vietnam (New York: Simon Schuster, 1984) William C. Westmoreland, A Soldier Reports (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1976). Philip Caputo, A Rumor of War (New York: Holt, Rinehart Winston, 1977) David Donovan, Once a Warrior King (New York: Ballantine, 1986) Stuart A. Essays? Herrington, Stalking the Vietcong: Inside Operation Phoenix: A Personal Account (Navato, CA: Presidio, 2004) Harold G. Moore and Joseph L. Galloway. We Were Soldiers Once . . . and Young (New York: HarperCollins, 1993). Christian G. Appy, Working-Class War: American Combat Soldiers and Vietnam (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993) For memoirs from senior leaders, students should consult William Colby with ; ; ; ; ; ; ; and Among the best memoirs from hockey conclusion junior officers and soldiers are: ; ; ; and Less a memoir than an excellent collective biography of the enlisted soldier serving in Vietnam is. David Halberstam, The Best and the Brightest (New York: Random House, 1969) David Halberstam, The Making of a Quagmire: America and Vietnam during the Kennedy Era (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1964, 1988) Michael Herr, Dispatches (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1968) Don Oberdorfer, Tet! (New York: Doubleday, 1971) Neil Sheehan, A Bright Shining Lie: John Paul Vann and America in Vietnam (New York: Random House, 1988). Peter Braestrup, Big Story: How the essays, American Press and Television Reported and Interpreted the Crisis of Tet 1968 in Vietnam and Washington (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1977). Journalists’ accounts were important in covering the American experience and in setting a foundation for difference between an article research, how the war has been outlined in popular memory. Among the for money, most indispensable of this genre are ; ; ; ; and Also useful is. Mark P. Conclusion? Bradley’s Vietnam at War (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009) Andrew Wiest, Vietnam’s Forgotten Army Vietnam’s Forgotten Army: Heroism and Betrayal in the ARVN (New York: New York University Press, 2008 Robert K. Brigham, ARVN: Life and Death in the South Vietnamese Army (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2006) Eric M. Bergerud, The Dynamics of Defeat: The Vietnam War in Hau Nghia Province (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1991) Jeffrey Race, War Comes to Long An: Revolutionary Conflict in essays for money a Vietnamese Province (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1972) James Walker Trullinger Jr., Village at War: An Account of rhodes essay Revolution in Vietnam (New York: Longman, 1980).

Frances FitzGerald, Fire in the Lake: The Vietnamese and for money, the Americans in hockey essay conclusion Vietnam (Boston: Little, Brown, 1972). The South Vietnamese perspective often gets lost in American-centric works on the war but should not be disregarded. is an excellent one-volume history of the essays for money, war written from the Vietnamese viewpoint. Both ) and can we use rhetorical questions in essays, , make an important contribution for understanding the U.S. Army’s most important allies. Submit Essays? Three provincial studies also delve into the war inside South Vietnam’s villages: ; ; and For an argument on the cultural divide between allies, see. Pierre Asselin, Hanoi’s’ Road to bernard bailyn origins, the Vietnam War, 1954–1965 (Berkeley: University of essays California Press, 2013) Lien-Hang T. Nguyen, Hanoi’s War: An International History of the War for Peace in Vietnam (Chapel Hill: University of debate euthanasia essay North Carolina Press, 2012) Ang Cheng Guan, The Vietnam War from the Other Side: The Vietnamese Communists’ Perspective (London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2002 Victory in Vietnam: The Official History of the submit essays for money, People’s Army of Vietnam, 1954–1975 , translated by Merle L. Pribbenow (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2002) William J. Duiker, The Communist Road to questions in essays, Power , 2d ed. Submit? (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1996) Warren Wilkins, Grab Their Belts to Fight Them: The Viet Cong’s Big Unit War against the U.S., 1965–1966 (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2011).

If the South Vietnamese perspective often is overlooked, the North Vietnamese also tends to get short shrift in American works. Relying on use rhetorical questions new research, the best among this group are ; ; ) and submit essays for money, Ending the Vietnam War: The Vietnamese Communists’ Perspective (London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2004); ; ; and. Bao Ninh, The Sorrow of War: A Novel of North Vietnam (New York: Riverhead, 1996) Josiah Bunting, The Lionheads (New York: George Braziller, 1972) Karl Marlantes, Matterhorn: A Novel of the bernard bailyn origins american, Vietnam War (New York: Atlantic Monthly, 2010) Tim O’Brien, The Things They Carried (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1990) Robert Roth, Sand in the Wind (Boston: Little, Brown, 1973). Finally, students should not overlook the value of novels in understanding the war from the soldiers’ viewpoint. Among the best are ; ; ; ; and. Among the essays, best documentary collections are ), and Also useful is abstract in literature, For encyclopedias on the war, see ), and.

Researchers should also consult two still useful collections of documents: The Pentagon Papers: The Defense Department History of United States Decision making on Vietnam, ed. Mike Gravel , 5 vols. Essays For Money? (Boston: Beacon, 1971–1972), and William Conrad Gibbons, The U.S. Government and the Vietnam War: Executive and Legislative Roles and debate essay, Relationships , 4 vols. Submit? (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1986–1995). The U.S. Department of State has collected a wonderful array of rhodes fellowship documents in the Foreign Relations of the United States ( FRUS ) series. These resources can be found online at submit essays For researchers delving into primary sources, the best place to begin is the Virtual Vietnam Archive run by use rhetorical Texas Tech University in submit for money Lubbock, Texas.

This online archive houses more than four million pages of materials and is located at Rhodes Fellowship Essay? The physical archive has much more additional material for submit, researchers. For higher level strategic insights, the presidential libraries in Boston, Massachusetts (Kennedy), Austin, Texas (Johnson), and Yorba Linda, California (Nixon) have important archival holdings. Those seeking insights into rhodes fellowship essay, the U.S. Army will find excellent resources at the U.S. For Money? Army Military History Institute in Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania, and the U.S.

Army Center of Military History at Fort McNair, Washington, DC. The National Archives in College Park, Maryland, offers a vast amount of resources as well. Finally, for those wishing to hockey, focus on cultural issues within the region, researchers may wish to consult the John M. Echols Collection on Southeast Asia at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. Submit For Money? Researcher information can be found at Anderson, David L., ed. Abstract In Literature? The Columbia History of the Vietnam War . New York: Columbia University Press, 2011. Find this resource: Cosmas, Graham A. Submit? MACV: The Joint Command in the Years of Escalation, 1962–1967. Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 2006. Find this resource:

Cosmas, Graham A. MACV: The Joint Command in the Years of Withdrawal, 1968–1973 . Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 2007. Find this resource: Daddis, Gregory A. Westmoreland’s War: Reassessing American Strategy in the Vietnam War . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014. Find this resource: Elliott, David W. P. The Vietnamese War: Revolution and Social Change in the Mekong Delta, 1930–1975. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 2002. Find this resource: Herring, George C. America’s Longest War: The United States and Vietnam, 1950–1975 . 4th ed.

New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002. In Literature? Find this resource: Hess, Gary R. Vietnam: Explaining America’s Lost War . Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2008. Find this resource: Hunt, Richard A. Pacification: The American Struggle for Vietnam’s Hearts and Minds . Boulder, CO: Westview, 1995. Find this resource: Kimball, Jeffrey. Nixon’s Vietnam War . Submit Essays For Money? Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998. Find this resource: Lawrence, Mark Atwood. The Vietnam War: A Concise International History . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008. Find this resource: Nguyen, Lien-Hang T. Hanoi’s War: An International History of the War for Peace in Vietnam . Durham: University of North Carolina Press, 2012.

Find this resource: (1.) JCS quoted in abstract in literature Max Hastings, The Korean War (New York: Simon Schuster, 1987), 229. Hastings argued that the “Korean War occupies a unique place in history, as the first superpower essay of the essays for money, nuclear age in ideological origins american the employment of limited force to achieve limited objectives,” p. 338. On the relationship of Korea to Europe, see Stanley Sandler, The Korean War: No Victors, No Vanquished (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1999), 144. (2.) Matthew B. Ridgway, The Korean War (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1967 ; reprint, New York: Da Capo Press, 1986), 145, 232. (3.) Bernard Brodie, Strategy in submit the Missile Age (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1959), 311 . Bernard American? For a broader context of this period, see Jonathan M. Submit Essays? House, A Military History of the Cold War, 1944–1962 (Norman: University of bernard american Oklahoma Press, 2012) . (4.) Robert E. Osgood, Limited War: The Challenge to American Security (Chicago: University of for money Chicago Press, 1957), 5, 7 . (5.) Andrew J. Use Rhetorical? Birtle, U.S. Army Counterinsurgency and for money, Contingency Operations Doctrine, 1942–1976 (Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 2006), 278. See also Douglas Porch, Counterinsurgency: Exposing the hockey conclusion, Myths of the New Way of War (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2103), 217 . For Money? For a counterargument on difference research paper how U.S. Army officers shunned learning and thus lost the war in Vietnam, see John Nagl, Learning to Eat Soup with a Knife: Counterinsurgency Lessons from Malaya and Vietnam (Chicago: University of essays for money Chicago Press, 2002). Between Research? (6.) Henry A. Kissinger, Nuclear Weapons and Foreign Policy (New York: Harper Brothers, 1957), 139 . David Fitzgerald argues that senior MACV leaders “made a strong effort to understand the type of war [they] confronted.” Learning to submit essays for money, Forget: US Army Counterinsurgency Doctrine and Practice from debate euthanasia Vietnam to Iraq (Stanford, CA: Stanford Security Studies, 2013), 38 . Submit Essays For Money? On multiple dimensions of strategy, see Colin S. Gray, “Why strategy is difficult,” in Strategic Studies: A Reader , 2d ed., ed. Thomas G. Mahnken and Joseph A. In Literature? Maiolo (New York: Routledge, 2014), 43. (7.) Lyndon Baines Johnson, The Vantage Point: Perspectives on the Presidency, 1963–1969 (New York: Holt, Rinehart Winston, 1971), 241 . On larger Cold War issues, see John Lewis Gaddis, Strategies of Containment: A Critical Appraisal of Postwar American National Security Policy (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982), 240 . (8.) McNamara quoted in Gerard J. Submit Essays For Money? DeGroot, A Noble Cause? America and the Vietnam War (Harlow, UK: Longman, 2000), 135 . On enemy escalation and debate essay, its impact, see David Kaiser, American Tragedy: Kennedy, Johnson, and the Origins of the Vietnam War (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of for money Harvard University Press, 2000), 346 . American? B. H. Liddell Hart, Strategy , 2d rev. ed. (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1954), 335–336. (9.) Neil L. Essays? Jamieson argues that “Vietnamese clung to and fought over their own competing and incompatible visions of what Vietnam was and abstract in literature, what it might and essays, should become.” In Neil L. Jamieson, Understanding Vietnam (Berkeley: University of bernard ideological american California Press, 1993), x . (10.) Ronald H. Spector, Advice and Support: The Early Years, 1941–1960 (Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 1983), 336 . While early MAAG commanders realized the importance of economic development as part of an submit for money, overall approach to strategy, Lieutenant General Lionel McGarr, who took over MAAG in August 1960, elevated the importance of counterinsurgency training within the ARVN ranks. Spector, Advice and Support , 365. See also Alexander S. Cochran Jr., “American Planning for use rhetorical questions, Ground Combat in Vietnam: 1952–1965,” Parameters 14.2 (Summer 1984): 65 . (11.) Robert Buzzanco, Masters of War: Military Dissent and Politics in the Vietnam Era (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996), 65, 72–73 . While sympathetic to Ngo Dinh Diem, Mark Moyar covers the American participation during the advisory years in Triumph Forsaken: The Vietnam War, 1954–1965 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006) . (12.) Agrovilles were supposedly secure communities to which rural civilians were relocated in hopes of separating them from NLF insurgents.

On Diem, development, and essays for money, engineering a social revolution, see Edward Miller, Misalliance: Ngo Dinh Diem, the United States, and the Fate of South Vietnam (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013) . For a competing interpretation, see James M. Carter, Inventing Vietnam: The United States and State Building, 1954–1968 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008). On training of South Vietnam forces, James Lawton Collins Jr., The Development and Training of the South Vietnamese Army, 1950–1972 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1975) . (13.) Graham A. Cosmas, MACV: The Joint Command in an article and a the Years of Escalation, 1962–1967 (Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 2006), 35 . Submit For Money? (14.) For the North Vietnamese perspective, especially in the years preceding full American intervention, see Pierre Asselin, Hanoi’s Road to the Vietnam War, 1954–1965 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013) , and William J. Use Rhetorical In Essays? Duiker, The Communist Road to Power , 2d ed. (Boulder, CO: Westview , 1996) . For a perspective of Diem somewhat at odds with Miller, and especially Moyar, see Seth Jacobs, Cold War Mandarin: Ngo Dinh Diem and the Origins of submit for money America’s War in Vietnam, 1950–1963 (Lanham, MD: Rowman Littlefield, 2006) . (15.) Michael H. Hunt, Lyndon Johnson’s War: America’s Cold War Crusade in Vietnam, 1945–1968 (New York: Hill Wang, 1996), 94 . Can We Questions? On the for money, air campaign, see Mark Clodfelter, The Limits of rhodes fellowship essay Airpower: The American Bombing of North Vietnam (New York: Free Press, 1989) , and for money, Lloyd C. Gardner, “Lyndon Johnson and the Bombing of Vietnam: Politics and Military Choices,” in The Columbia History of the euthanasia, Vietnam War , ed. David L. Anderson (New York: Columbia University Press, 2011). (16.) Westmoreland quoted in Larry Berman, Planning a Tragedy: The Americanization of the War in Vietnam (New York: W. W. Norton, 1982), 71 . For an example of senior officers blaming civilians for limiting military means to achieve political ends, see U.S. Grant Sharp, Strategy for Defeat: Vietnam in submit Retrospect (San Rafael, CA: Presidio, 1978) . (17.) On the contentious topic of escalation, see Fredrik Logevall, Choosing War: The Lost Chance for Peace and the Escalation of War in Vietnam (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999) , and Lloyd C. Abstract In Literature? Gardner, Pay Any Price: Lyndon Johnson and the Wars for essays for money, Vietnam (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1995). David L. And A Paper? Di Leo offers a treatment of a key dissenter inside the essays for money, Johnson White House in George Ball, Vietnam, and rhodes fellowship essay, the Rethinking of Containment (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991). (18.) Robert S. McNamara, In Retrospect: The Tragedy and Lessons of Vietnam (New York: Times Books, 1995), 188. Submit Essays For Money? (19.) Westmoreland’s assessment in The Pentagon Papers: The Defense Department History of United States Decisionmaking in Vietnam, vol.

4, ed. Mike Gravel. (Boston: Beacon Press, 1971–1972), 606. In Literature? See also chapter 7, “Evolution of Strategy,” in submit William C. Questions? Westmoreland, A Soldier Reports (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1976) . (20.) Phillip B. Davidson, Vietnam at essays for money War: The History: 1946–1975 (Novato, CA: Presidio, 1988), 354 . On MACV guidance in implementing this broad strategy, see John M. Carland, “Winning the difference between research, Vietnam War: Westmoreland’s Approach in Two Documents,” Journal of Military History 68.2 (April 2004): 553–574 . (21.) U. S. Grant Sharp and William C. Westmoreland, Report on the War in essays for money Vietnam (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1969), 100 . The Pentagon Papers , Vol. 4, 296. (22.) Vo Nguyen Giap, People’s War, People’s Army: The Viet Cong Insurrection Manual for debate essay, Underdeveloped Countries (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1962), 46, 61 . For Money? On the evolution of between and a paper Hanoi’s strategic thinking, see David W. P. Essays For Money? Elliott, “Hanoi’s Strategy in the Second Indochina War,” in The Vietnam War: Vietnamese and American Perspectives , ed. Jayne S. Werner and Luu Doan Huynh (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1993) . (23.) The strategic debate is best outlined in Lien-Hang T. Nguyen, Hanoi’s War: An International History of the War for Peace in rhodes fellowship Vietnam (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2012), 71 . See also Nguyen Vu Tung, “Coping with the essays, United States: Hanoi’s Search for an Effective Strategy,” in The Vietnam War , ed. In Essays? Peter Lowe (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998), 46–48 ; and Hanoi Assessment of submit Guerrilla War in South, November 1966, Folder 17, Box 06, Douglas Pike Collection: Unit 01-Assessment and Strategy, The Vietnam Archive, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas (hereafter cited as TTUVA). Resolution 12 in in literature Communist Strategy as Reflected in Lao Dong Party and COSVN Resolutions, Folder 26, Box 07, Douglas Pike Collection: Unit 06-Democratic Republic of submit Vietnam, TTUVA, p. Difference An Article Research Paper? 3. (24.) For a useful historiographical sketch on submit essays the debates over intervention and American strategy, see Gary R. Hess, Vietnam: Explaining America’s Lost War (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2009) , chapters 3 and 4. Abstract In Literature? (25.) Westmoreland quoted in for money Davidson, Vietnam at War , 313.

On early U.S. Army actions in Vietnam, see John M. Carland, Stemming the Tide: May 1965 to October 1966 (Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 2000) , and fellowship, Shelby L. Stanton, The Rise and Fall of an American Army: U.S. Essays? Ground Forces in Vietnam, 1965–1973 (Novato, CA: Presidio, 1985) . (26.) Westmoreland explained his rationale for focusing on main force units in A Soldier Reports , 180. For a counterargument against this approach, see Andrew F. Krepinevich Jr., The Army and Vietnam (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986) . (27.) The best monograph on bernard bailyn ideological origins american the Ia Drang battles remains Harold G. Moore and Joseph L. Essays For Money? Galloway, We Were Soldiers Once . . . and Young (New York: HarperCollins, 1993) . For a perspective from the enemy side, see Warren Wilkins, Grab Their Belts to Fight Them: The Viet Cong’s Big Unit War against the U.S., 1965–1966 (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2011) , especially chapter 6. (28.) COMUSMACV memorandum, “Increased Emphasis on Rural Construction,” 8 December 1965, Correspondence, 1965–1966, Box 35, Jonathan O. Seaman Papers, U.S. Army Military History Institute, Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania (hereafter cited as MHI). (29.) Westmoreland highlighted Hanoi’s continuing infiltration of hockey conclusion forces into South Vietnam at the end of 1965.

An evaluation of U.S. operations in early December underscored his concerns that “our attrition of submit their forces in South Vietnam is abstract in literature, insufficient to offset this buildup.” In Carland, “Winning the Vietnam War,” 570. Essays? On the media’s take on these early battles, see “G.I.’s Found Rising to Vietnam Test,” New York Times , December 26, 1965. (30.) Memorandum to President Lyndon B. Johnson from Robert S. McNamara: Events between November 3–29, 1965, November 30, 1964, Folder 9, Box 3, Larry Berman Collection, TTUVA. On McNamara being “shaken” by hockey the meeting, see Neil Sheehan, A Bright Shining Lie: John Paul Vann and America in Vietnam (New York: Random House, 1988), 579–580 . McNamara, In Retrospect , 221–222. (31.) “Presidential Decisions: The Honolulu Conference, February 6–8, 1966,” Folder 2, Box 4, Larry Berman Collection (Presidential Archives Research), TTUVA. John T. Wheeler, “Only a Fourth of submit South Viet Nam Is Under Control of Saigon Regime,” Washington Star , January 25, 1966. Abstract? (32.) “1966 Program to Increase the submit essays, Effectiveness of Military Operations and Anticipated Results Thereof,” February 8, 1966, in The War in Vietnam: The Papers of abstract William C. Westmoreland , ed. Robert E. Lester (Bethesda, MD: University Publications of America, 1993) , Incl. 6, Folder 4, Reel 6. See also U.S. Department of essays for money State, Foreign Relations of the United States , vol. 5, Vietnam, 1967 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2002), 216–219 (hereafter cited as FRUS ). Bernard Ideological? Westmoreland took to heart the importance of rural construction. See MACV Commander’s Conference, February 20, 1966, Counter VCI Folder, Historian’s Files, U.S.

Army Center of Military History, Fort McNair, Washington, DC (hereafter cited as CMH). (33.) Pacification defined in “Handbook for Military Support of Pacification,” February 1968, Folder 14, Box 5, United States Armed Forces Manual Collection, TTUVA. Seymour Topping, “Crisis in Saigon Snags U.S. Submit For Money? Effort,” New York Times , April 5, 1966 . Fellowship Essay? Martin G. Clemis, “Competing and Incompatible Visions: Revolution, Pacification, and the Political Organization of Space during the Second Indochina War,” paper presented at the 81st Annual Meeting of the Society for submit essays for money, Military History, April 2014, Kansas City, MO. (34.) On Westmoreland’s approach to pacification, see Gregory A. Daddis, Westmoreland’s War: Reassessing American Strategy in Vietnam (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014) , chapter 5. For a counterargument that dismisses allied pacification efforts, see Nick Turse, Kill Anything That Moves: The Real American War in between an article research Vietnam (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2013). Submit Essays For Money? (35.) Sir Robert Thompson, Defeating Communist Insurgency: The Lessons of Malaya and Vietnam (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1966), 55 . For a contemporary argument of Malaya not being relevant to hockey essay conclusion, Vietnam, see Bernard B. Essays? Fall, Viet-Nam Witness: 1953–66 (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1966), 272 . (36.) Thomas L. Ahern Jr., Vietnam Declassified: The CIA and Counterinsurgency (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2010), 171–175 . Bailyn American? (37.) The best monograph on pacification remains Richard A. Hunt, Pacification: The American Struggle for Vietnam’s Hearts and Minds (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1995) . Submit For Money? For a balanced treatment of fellowship essay Komer, see Frank L. Jones, Blowtorch: Robert Komer, Vietnam, and for money, American Cold War Strategy (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2013) . See also Robert W. Komer, Bureaucracy at War: U.S. Research? Performance in the Vietnam Conflict (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1986) . A partial impetus for an increased emphasis on pacification stemmed from a March 1966 report known as PROVN, shorthand for “A Program for the Pacification and submit essays for money, Long-Term Development of South Vietnam.” PROVN stressed nonmilitary means and argued that “victory” could be achieved only by “bringing the individual Vietnamese, typically a rural peasant, to support willingly the Government of South Vietnam (GVN).” Deputy Chief of Staff for Military Operations, “A Program for the Pacification and rhodes fellowship, Long-Term Development of South Vietnam (Department of the Army, March 1966), 1, 3. Essays For Money? The best review of this still hotly debated document is Andrew J. Birtle, “PROVN, Westmoreland, and the Historians: A Reappraisal,” Journal of Military History 72.4 (October 2008): 1213–1247 . (38.) Robert W. Komer, “Clear, Hold and Rebuild,” Army 20.5 5 (May 1970): 19 . On CORDS establishment, see National Security Action Memorandum No. 362, FRUS , 1964–1968, vol. Essay? 5, 398–399. Though revolutionary development remained, at essays least nominally, a South Vietnamese program, many observers believed the inability of the ARVN to rhodes essay, take over pacification in the countryside helped spur the establishment of CORDS.

Robert Shaplen, The Road from War: Vietnam, 1965–1970 (New York: Harper Row, 1970), 122 . As of March 31, 1967, 53 ARVN infantry battalions were performing missions in direct support of pacification. MACV Monthly Evaluation Report, March 1967, MHI, 13. (39.) For a contemporary discussion on the cultural divide between Americans and Vietnamese and how this impacted both military operations and the pacification program, see Frances FitzGerald, Fire in the Lake: The Vietnamese and the Americans in Vietnam (Boston: Little, Brown, 1972). Fitzgerald maintained that the “political and economic design of the Vietnamese revolution” remained “invisible” to almost all Americans, (p. 143). (40.) For competing tasks within CORDS, see Chester L. Submit Essays? Cooper, et al., “The American Experience with Pacification in Vietnam, Volume III: History of and a research Pacification,” March 1972, Folder 65, U.S. Submit For Money? Marine Corps History Division, Vietnam War Documents Collection, TTUVA, 271. Journalist Ward Just reported that the real yardsticks of pacification’s progress were “the Vietnamese view of events, the Vietnamese mood, the Vietnamese will and the Vietnamese capability.” See “Another Measure of bailyn origins american Vietnam’s War,” Washington Post , October 15, 1967. On personnel turbulence, see Mark DePu, “Vietnam War: The Individual Rotation Policy,” . (41.) As a sampling of contemporary journalist critiques of the war in 1967, see: Joseph Kraft, “The True Failure in Saigon—South Vietnam’s Fighting Force,” Los Angeles Times , May 3, 1967 ; Ward Just, “This War May Be Unwinnable,” Washington Post, June 4, 1967 ; and R. For Money? W. Debate Euthanasia Essay? Apple, “Vietnam: The Signs of submit essays Stalemate,” New York Times , August 7, 1967. On the war in 1967 being perceived as a stalemate, see Sir Robert Thompson, No Exit from Vietnam (New York: David McKay, 1969), 67 ; and Anthony James Joes, The War for in literature, South Viet Nam, 1954–1975, rev. ed. (Westport, CT: Praeger, 2001), 96 . On military operations early in 1967, see Bernard W. Rogers, Cedar Falls–Junction City: A Turning Point (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1974, 2004) . (42.) On Johnson’s salesmanship campaign, see Larry Berman, Lyndon Johnson’s War: The Road to Stalemate in Vietnam (New York: W. W. Norton, 1989) , especially chapters 5–7. On the MACV-CIA debate, see James J. Wirtz, “Intelligence to Please? The Order of Battle Controversy during the Vietnam War,” Political Science Quarterly 106.2 (Summer 1991): 239–263 . (43.) On Hanoi’s views and its policy for a decisive victory, see Victory in for money Vietnam: The Official History of the People’s Army of in essays Vietnam, 1954–1975 , trans.

Merle L. Submit For Money? Pribbenow (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2002), 206–207 . On overriding political goals of Tet, see: Ang Cheng Guan, The Vietnam War from the Other Side: The Vietnamese Communists’ Perspective (London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2002),116–126 ; James J. Wirtz, The Tet Offensive: Intelligence Failure in in literature War (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1991), 10, 20–21 ; Ronnie E. Ford, Tet 1968: Understanding the submit for money, Surprise (London: Frank Cass, 1995), 70–71 ; and Gabriel Kolko, Anatomy of a War: Vietnam, the United States, and the Modern Historical Experience (New York: Pantheon Books, 1985), 303 . (44.) If successful, Hanoi’s leaders also would be in fellowship a more advantageous position if forced into a “fighting while negotiating” phase of the war. Ford, Tet 1968 , 93. See also Merle L. Essays For Money? Pribbenow II, “General Vo Nguyen Giap and the Mysterious Evolution of the hockey, Plan for the 1968 T?t Offensive,” Journal of Vietnamese Studies 3 (Summer 2008): 1–33 . (45.) Carver quoted in Robert J. McMahon, “Turning Point: The Vietnam War’s Pivotal Year, November 1967–November 1968,” in Anderson, The Columbia History of the Vietnam War , 198. For a journalist’s account, see Don Oberdorfer, Tet! (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1971) . For an accessible reference book, see William T. Allison, The Tet Offensive: A Brief History with Documents (New York: Routledge, 2008) . Submit Essays? (46.) Gallup poll results in the aftermath of Tet in Berman, Lyndon Johnson’s War , 185. Background on LBJ’s March 31 speech in Robert Mann, A Grand Delusion: America’s Descent into Vietnam (New York: Basic Books, 2001), 600–602 ; A. J. Langguth, Our Vietnam: The War, 1954–1975 (New York: Simon Schuster, 2000), 492–493 ; and Kolko, Anatomy of a War , 320–321. Decision on troop levels in Mann, A Grand Delusion , 576. (47.) Zeb B. Bradford, “With Creighton Abrams during Tet,” Vietnam (February 1998): 45 . Media reports in James Landers, The Weekly War: Newsmagazines and Vietnam (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2004), 145–146 . As examples arguing for a change in strategy, see A. J. Langguth, “General Abrams Listens to a Different Drum,” New York Times , May 5, 1968 , and “A ‘Different’ War Now, With Abrams in Command,” U.S.

News World Report , August 26, 1968, 12. On Abrams’s “one-war” concept, see Lewis Sorley, A Better War: The Unexamined Victories and Final Tragedy of America’s Last Years in Vietnam (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1999), 18 . The Westmoreland-Abrams strategy debate remains contentious. In his admiration of Abrams, Lewis Sorley is most vocal in supporting a change in rhodes essay strategic concept. See as an example, Vietnam Chronicles: The Abrams Tapes, 1968–1972 (Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 2004), xix . Others are less certain. Phillip Davidson served under both commanders, as did Robert W. Submit Essays For Money? Komer—neither subscribed to a change in strategy under Abrams. Davidson, Vietnam at War , 512, and Komer in debate essay The Lessons of Vietnam, ed. W. Essays? Scott Thompson and Donaldson D. Frizzell (New York: Crane, Russak, 1977), 79 . Andrew Birtle’s argument on the change being “more in emphasis than in debate euthanasia essay substance” seems most compelling. “As MACV admitted in 1970, ‘the basic concept and objectives of submit essays pacification, to defeat the VC/NVA and to provide the people with economic and social benefits, have changed little since the first comprehensive GVN plan was published in an article and a paper 1964.’” In U.S. Army Counterinsurgency and Contingency Operations Doctrine , 367. (48.) Andrew J. Submit Essays For Money? Goodpaster, Senior Officers Debriefing Program, May 1976, MHI, p. Abstract? 40. On peace replacing military victory, see Daniel C. Hallin, The “Uncensored War”: The Media and Vietnam (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), 178 . (49.) On goals, see Richard Nixon, The Real War (New York: Warner Books 1980), 106 , and No More Vietnams (New York: Arbor House: 1985), 98.

Henry Kissinger, The White House Years (Boston: Little, Brown, 1979), 298 . See also Larry Berman, No Peace, No Honor: Nixon, Kissinger, and Betrayal in Vietnam (New York: Free Press, 2001), 50 . Jeffrey Kimball argues that de-Americanization “was a course made politically necessary by the American public’s desire to wind down the war and submit essays, doubts among key segments of the foreign-policy establishment about the possibility of winning the war.” The Vietnam War Files: Uncovering the difference between an article paper, Secret History of Nixon-Era Strategy (Lawrence: University Press of submit essays for money Kansas, 2004), 12. (50.) On withdrawal not representing a defeat, see “Now: A Shift in Goals, Methods,” U.S. News World Report , January 6, 1969, 16. Hockey? On global perspective, see Jeffrey Kimball, Nixon’s Vietnam War (Lawrence: University Press of essays Kansas, 1998), 62 . Michael Lind argues that Nixon had to rhodes, withdraw “in a manner that preserved domestic support for the Cold War in other theaters.” Vietnam: The Necessary War (New York: Free Press, 1999), 106 . (51.) Richard Nixon, RN: The Memoirs of Richard Nixon (New York: Grosset Dunlap, 1978), 349 . On realizing limits to essays for money, U.S. An Article Research Paper? power, see Lawrence W. Serewicz, America at the Brink of Empire: Rusk, Kissinger, and the Vietnam War (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2007), 10 . On containing communism, see U.S. Embassy Statement, “Objectives and Courses of Action of the United States in submit South Viet-Nam,” FRUS , 1964–1968, vol. 7, 719 . See also Lloyd Gardner, “The Last Casualty? Richard Nixon and questions in essays, the End of the Vietnam War, 1969–75,” in for money A Companion to the Vietnam War , ed.

Marilyn B. Young and Robert Buzzanco (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2002), 230 . (52.) On problems of different types of threats, see Viet-Nam Info Series 20: “The Armed Forces of the Republic of Viet Nam,” from Vietnam Bulletin, 1969, Folder 09, Box 13, Douglas Pike Collection: Unit 02-Military Operations, TTUVA, ps. Difference An Article Paper? 8, 25. See also Richard Shultz Jr., “The Vietnamization-Pacification Strategy of 1969–1972: A Quantitative and Qualitative Reassessment,” in Lessons from an Unconventional War: Reassessing U.S. Strategies for Future Conflicts, ed. Richard A. Hunt and Richard H. Submit Essays? Shultz Jr. (New York: Pergamon, 1982), 55–56 . Loren Baritz argues that the “Nixon administration abandoned counterinsurgency” since it realized the bernard bailyn ideological, NLF no longer was a significant threat. Backfire: A History of How American Culture Led Us into Vietnam and Made Us Fight the Way We Did (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1985), 279 . Submit Essays For Money? (53.) Nixon, No More Vietnams , 104–107. Definition of essay pacification on p. 132. (54.) Pacification Priority Area Summary, September 3, 1968, prepared by CORDS, Folder 65, US Marine Corps History Division, Vietnam War Documents Collection, TTUVA. Countryside depopulation in Charles Mohr, “Saigon Tries to essays, Recover from the Blows,” New York Times , May 10, 1968 ; and fellowship, David W. P. Elliott, The Vietnamese War: Revolution and Social Change in the Mekong Delta, 1930–1975, concise ed. (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 2007), 331, 336 . On problems of measuring pacification security, see Gregory A. Daddis, No Sure Victory: Measuring U.S. Army Effectiveness and Progress in the Vietnam War (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011), 118–122 . Submit Essays For Money? (55.) The Chieu Hoi (“Open Arms”) program, begun in 1963, aimed to “rally” Vietcong defectors to the GVN side as part of a larger national reconciliation effort. The plan sought to give former insurgents “opportunities for defection, an alternative to the hardships and deprivations of abstract in literature guerrilla life, political pardon, and in some measure, though vocational training, a means of earning a livelihood.” Jeanette A. Koch, The Chieu Hoi Program in South Vietnam, 1963–1971 (Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 1973), v . (56.) Vietnam Lessons Learned No.

73, “Defeat of VC Infrastructure,” November 20, 1968, MACV Lessons Learned, Box 1, RG 472, National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, Maryland. See also Dale Andrade, Ashes to Ashes: The Phoenix Program and the Vietnam War (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1990) ; and Mark Moyar, Phoenix and the Birds of for money Prey: Counterinsurgency and Counterterrorism in Vietnam (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997, 2007) . (57.) For an example of the rhodes fellowship, hard fighting still continuing during the Abrams years, see Samuel Zaffiri, Hamburger Hill: May 11–20, 1969 (Novato, CA: Presidio, 1988). Submit For Money? On what U.S. advisers were doing as part of Vietnamization, see Jeffrey J. Clarke, Advice and Support: The Final Years, 1965–1973 (Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 1988), 342–343 . (58.) On ARVN increases, see in use rhetorical Larry A. Niksch, “Vietnamization: The Program and Its Problems,” Congressional Record Service, January 5, 1972, Folder 01, Box 19, Douglas Pike Collection: Unit 02-Military Operations, TTUVA, p. CRS-21. The best work on the South Vietnamese Army is for money, Robert K. Brigham, ARVN: Life and Death in the South Vietnamese Army (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2006) . (59.) “The Laird Plan,” Newsweek , June 2, 1969, 44. On ARVN lacking experience, see James H. Willbanks, Abandoning Vietnam: How America Left and South Vietnam Lost Its War (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2004), 51 ; and Samuel Zaffiri, Westmoreland: A Biography of General William C. Westmoreland (New York: William Morrow, 1994), 211 . (60.) Vietnamization working in Nixon, RN , 467. On enemy infiltration, see John Prados, The Blood Road: The Ho Chi Minh Trail and the Vietnam War (New York: John Wiley Sons, 1999) . On the incursion, see John M. Shaw, The Cambodian Campaign: The 1970 Offensive and America’s Vietnam War (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2005) , and Keith William Nolan, Into Cambodia: Spring Campaign, Summer Offensive, 1970 (Novato, CA: Presidio, 1990) . (61.) On My Lai, see Michael Bilton and Kevin Sim, Four Hours in My Lai (New York: Viking, 1992) , and William Thomas Allison, My Lai: An American Atrocity in the Vietnam War (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2012) . (62.) Mansfield and McGovern (both Democrats) quoted in Mann, A Grand Delusion , 645, 649. See also Berman, No Peace, No Honor , 76. For an introduction to the antiwar movement and its impact on Nixon, see Melvin Small, Antiwarriors: The Vietnam War and the Battle for America’s Hearts and Minds (Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 2002). (63.) Donald Kirk, “Who Wants to debate euthanasia essay, Be the Last American Killed in Vietnam?” New York Times , September 19, 1971 . See also “As Fighting Slows in for money Vietnam: Breakdown in GI Discipline” U.S. News World Report , June 7, 1971, and George Lepre, Fragging: Why U.S. Soldiers Assaulted Their Officers in Vietnam (Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 2011) . “Fragging,” derived from fragmentation grenade, was the act of rhodes fellowship essay fratricide, usually against an officer in a soldier’s chain of command. For Money? For counterarguments to the claims of army dysfunctionality, see William J. Shkurti, Soldiering on in a Dying War: The True Story of the Firebase Pace Incidents and the Vietnam Drawdown (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2011 ), and Jeremy Kuzmarov, The Myth of the Addicted Army: Vietnam and the Modern War on rhodes Drugs (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2009) . (64.) Captain Brian Utermahlen, company commander, quoted in John Saar, “You Can’t Just Hand Out Orders,” Life , October 23, 1970, 32 . Submit Essays? (65.) “The Troubled U.S.

Army in Vietnam,” Newsweek , January 11, 1971, 30, 34. On avoiding risks in a withdrawing army, see Saar, 31. James E. Westheider, The African American Experience in Vietnam: Brothers in Arms (Lanham, MD: Rowman Littlefield, 2008) . Ideological Origins? (66.) Troop strengths in Shelby L. Essays? Stanton, Vietnam Order of Battle: A Complete Illustrated Reference to U.S. Army Combat and Support Forces in Vietnam, 1961–1973 (Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole, 2003), 334 . Abstract? Kissinger’s concerns in submit for money The White House Years , 971. (67.) Nguyen Duy Hinh, Lam Son 719 (Washington, DC: U.S. Army Center of Military History, 1979), 8 . In Essays? On Lam Son 719 being linked to continuing withdrawals, see Andrew Wiest, Vietnam’s Forgotten Army: Heroism and essays for money, Betrayal in the ARVN (New York: New York University Press, 2008), 199 . (68.) Two new works cover the Lam Son 719 operation: James H. Willbanks, A Raid Too Far: Operation Lam Son 719 and Vietnamization in can we use rhetorical Laos (College Station: Texas AM University Press, 2014) , and Robert D. Sander, Invasion of Laos, 1971: Lam Son 719 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2014) . (69.) Politburo quoted in Victory in Vietnam , 283. Essays For Money? On Hanoi’s strategic motives, see Kimball, Nixon’s Vietnam War , 324; Stephen P. Randolph, Powerful and Brutal Weapons: Nixon, Kissinger, and the Easter Offensive (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007), 28–29 ; and Ngo Quang Truong, The Easter Offensive of 1972 (Washington, DC: U.S.

Army Center of Military History, 1980), 157–158 . (70.) Politburo quoted in Victory in Vietnam , 283. On uncertainty over between, Hanoi’s intentions, see Berman, No Peace, No Honor , 124; Allan E. Goodman, The Lost Peace: America’s Search for a Negotiated Settlement of the Vietnam War (Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 1978), 117–118 ; and Anthony T. Bouscaren, ed., All Quiet on the Eastern Front: The Death of South Vietnam (Old Greenwich, CT: Devin-Adair, 1977), 44 . For Money? Nixon viewed the euthanasia, invasion “as a sign of desperation.” In RN , 587. (71.) The bombing campaign during mid-1972 was codenamed Operation Linebacker. On debates between the White House and MACV over the best use of B-52s, see Randolph, Powerful and Brutal Weapons , 119–120; Kimball, Nixon’s Vietnam War , 314–315; and submit essays, H. Difference An Article Paper? R. For Money? Haldeman, The Haldeman Diaries: Inside the Nixon White House (New York: G. P. Putnam’s, 1994), 435 . On the campaign ending with “no culminating battles and mass retreats, just the gradual erosion of NVA strength and the release of pressure against defending ARVN troops,” see Randolph, Powerful and Brutal Weapons , 270. (72.) James H. Willbanks argues that “the fact U.S. tactical leadership and firepower were the key ingredients . . . was either lost in the mutual euphoria of victory or ignored by Nixon administration officials.” In The Battle of An Loc (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2005), 166. (73.) Thieu’s defiance and Hanoi’s intransigence in questions in essays Robert Dalleck, Nixon and Kissinger: Partners in Power (New York: HarperCollins, 2007), 443 . Paris agreement in Kimball, Nixon’s Vietnam War , 366–368. See also Kimball, The Vietnam War Files , 276–277. (74.) Linebacker II goals in Kimball, Nixon’s Vietnam War , 364–365. For Money? Press quoted in ibid., 366 . (75.) Ronald B. Frankum Jr., “‘Swatting Flies with a Sledgehammer’: The Air War,” in Rolling Thunder in a Gentle Land: The Vietnam War Revisited , ed. Andrew Wiest (New York: Osprey, 2006), 221–222. Rhodes Fellowship Essay? (76.) Westmoreland, A Soldier Reports , 180–181.

MACV staff in submit essays for money Sorley, Vietnam Chronicles , 9. (77.) Ridgway, The Korean War , 247. Department of History, United States Military Academy West Point.

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